Quotes from Sanskrit Classics
The classical period of Sanskrit literature dates back from the ೩rd century BC right upto to the ೮th century AD. One of the earliest known Sanskrit plays is the mrichakatika thought to have been composed by shudraka in the ೨nd century BC. Bhasa and Kalidasa are major early poets and dramatists. Kālidāsa qualifies easily as the greatest poet and playwright in Sanskrit. His three famous plays are Vikarmorvashiyam, Malavikaagnimitram and Abhijnaanashaakuntalam. The last mentioned play is acknowledged as one the most beautiful plays not only in classical Sanskrit but also in world literature.
A few of the greatest works of poetry in this period are the following Mahākāvyas:
• Kumarasambhavam by Kalidasa
• Kiratarjuniyam by Bharavi
• Sishupalavadham by Sri Magha
• Naishadheeya Charitam by Sri Harsha
There is a sloka which says about these mahakavis:
ಉಪಮಾ ಕಾಲಿದಾಸಸ್ಯ ಭಾರವೇರರ್ಥಗೌರವಮ್
ದನ್ಡಿನಃ ಪದಲಾಲಿತ್ಯಂ ಮಾಘೇ ಸನ್ತಿ ತ್ರಯೋ ಗುಣಾಃ
Kalidasa excels in the use of similes and metaphors in his poetry, Bharavi’s works are pregnant with meaning, Dandi’s language is simple and lilting and poet Magha combines in him all the three qualities mentioned above
Sanskrit fairy tales and fables are chiefly characterized by ethical reflections and proverbial philosophy. The two most important collections are Panchatantra by Vishnu Sharma and Hitopadesha by Narayana Pandita. These were originally intended as manuals for the instruction of kings in domestic and foreign policy.
Somadeva’s Kathasaritsagara is a work of special importance. Composed in verse it is of very considerable length, containing more than ೨೨,೦೦೦ slokas.
Fable collections, serving as the handbooks of practical moral philosophy, provided an abundant reservoir of ethical maxims. They became so popular that works consisting exclusively of poetical aphorisms started to appear. The most important are the two collections by the highly-gifted Bhartruhari entitled respectively Nīti-śataka and Vairāgya-śataka.
Given below is selection of sayings from the Sanskrit classics. The selections are in the nature of what is called subhashitani , literally meaning ‘well said’, picturesque in expression and import, embedded as diamonds strewn . They throw light on human nature, on virtues like truthfulness, compassion, love, humility, charity, perseverance, human effort etc, code of conduct according to one’s role in the family or society and practical advice when faced with obstacles or difficulties. They also warn us against negative emotions like anger, jealousy, greed, conceit, fault-finding etc. It has to be pointed out here that the selections are not intended to bring out the poetic excellences or provide a critical appreciation of the works concerned
Raghuvamsam (Mahakavi Kalidasa)
ಹೇಮ್ನಃ ಸಂಲಕ್ಷ್ಯತೇ ಹ್ಯಗ್ನೌ ವಿಶುದ್ಧಿ: ಶ್ಯಾಮಿಕಾಽಪಿ ವಾ
The purity or otherwise of gold can be tested only when it is put through the fire
ಕ್ರಿಯಾ ಹಿ ವಸ್ತೂಪಹಿತಾ ಪ್ರಸೀದತಿ
Knowledge imparted only to a fit recipient will yield the desired result.
ಪದಂ ಹಿ ಸರ್ವತ್ರ ಗುಣೈರ್ನಿಧೀಯತೇ
Good qualities put their footprints everywhere.
People have varied tastes, likes and dislikes.
ಮರಣಂ ಪ್ರಕೃತಿಃ ಶರೀರಿಣಾಂ ವಿಕೃತಿರ್ಜೀವಿತಮುಚ್ಯತೇ ಬುಧೈಃ
ಕ್ಷಣಮಪ್ಯವತಿಷ್ಠತೇ ಶ್ವಸನ್ ಯದಿ ಜನ್ತುರ್ನನು ಲಾಭವಾನಸೌ
Wise men say that death is a natural thing for the embodied soul whereas life is accidental. Even if one is able to breathe and be alive for a second, it should be considered as a gain.
ಸ್ವಶರೀರಶರೀರಿಣಾವಪಿ ಶ್ರುತ ಸಂಯೋಗ ವಿಪರ್ಯಯೌ ಯದಾ
ವಿರಹ್ಃ ಕಿಮಿವಾನುತಾಪಯೇತ್ ವದ ಬಾಹ್ಯೈರ್ವಿಷಯೈರ್ವಿಪಶ್ಚಿತಾಂ
When the union and separation of the body (shareera ) and the indweller of the body (shareeree, Jiva) is common knowledge, how could the separation (viraha) from external entities cause grief to a wise person?
Kumarasambhavam (Mahakavi Kalidasa)
ವಿಕಾರಹೇತೌ ಸತಿ ವಿಕ್ರಿಯನ್ತೇ ಯೇಷಾಂ ನ ಚೇತಾಂಸಿ ತ ಏವ ಧೀರಾಃ
Only he can be considered a dheera ( a person of courage) whose mind is not disturbed or overcome by emotions even in the presence of objects of temptation.
ಪ್ರಾಯೇಣ ಸಾಮಗ್ರ್ಯವಿಧೌ ಗುಣಾನಾಮ್
ಪರಾಙ್ಮುಖೀ ವಿಶ್ವಸೃಜಃ ಪ್ರವೃತ್ತಿಃ
In most of the cases, the Creator Brahma is reluctant to assemble all the good qualities in one place (person). (The idea is even the best of men will have a few failings.)
ಕ ಈಪ್ಸಿತಾರ್ಥಸ್ಥಿರನಿಶ್ಚಯಂ ಮನಃ
ಪಯಶ್ಚ ನಿಮ್ನಾಭಿಮುಖಂ ಪ್ರತೀಪಯೇತ್
Who can reverse the course of two things, namely, the mind which is steadfastly clinging to the desired object and water which always flows from higher level to lower level ?
ಶರೀರಮಾದ್ಯಂ ಖಲು ಧರ್ಮಸಾಧನಮ್
The human body is the first instrument for treading the path of dharma
ನ ರತ್ನಮನ್ವಿಷ್ಯತಿ ಮೃಗ್ಯತೇ ಹಿ ತತ್
A valuable diamond does not seek, it is only sought after.
ದ್ವಿಷನ್ತಿ ಮನ್ದಾಶ್ಚರಿತಂ ಮಹಾತ್ಮನಾಮ್
Fools deride the character of great souls whose conduct and behaviour are different from those of ordinary mortals who cannot think of possible reasons for such difference.
ಪ್ರಾಯಃ ಪ್ರತ್ಯಯಮಾದತ್ತೇ ಸ್ವಗುಣೇಷೂತ್ತಮಾದರಃ
Respect or recognition by men of noble character instills into one a belief in one’s own good qualities.
ಯಾಚ್ಞಾ ಮೋಘಾ ವರಮಧಿಗುಣೇ ನಾಧಮೇ ಲಬ್ಧಕಾಮಾ
Begging of a noble person and not getting what one wants is much better than begging of a mean person and getting what one wants.
ರಿಕ್ತಃ ಸರ್ವೇ ಭವತಿ ಹಿ ಲಘುಃ ಪೂರ್ಣತಾ ಗೌರವಾಯ
Empty ( of wealth, knowledge, good qualities etc) one loses dignity and respect in society. Fullness ( of wealth, knowledge, good qualities etc.) , on the other hand, gives one dignity and respect in society.
ಆಪನ್ನಾರ್ತಿಪ್ರಶಮನಫಲಾಃ ಸಮ್ಪದೋ ಹ್ಯುತ್ತಮಾನಾಮ್
Noble souls use their wealth for the purpose of wiping out the misery and suffering of those overcome by misfortune.
ಕಸ್ಯಾತ್ಯನ್ತಂ ಸುಖಮುಪನತಂ ದು:ಖಮೇಕಾನ್ತತೋ ವಾ
ನೀಚೈರ್ಗಚ್ಛತ್ಯುಪರಿ ಚ ದಶಾ ಚಕ್ರನೇಮಿಕ್ರಮೇಣ
There is none who is always happy and comfortable and none who is always unhappy and miserable. Happiness and sorrow alternate like the rim of a wheel which goes up and down
Abhijnaanashaakuntalam Natakam (Mahakavi Kalidasa)
ಕಿಮಿವ ಹಿ ಮಧುರಾಣಾಂ ಮಣ್ಡನಂ ನಾಕೃತೀನಾಮ್
Which is not an adornment for a beautiful form? (Anything can add to the beauty if one has a beautiful form)
ಸತಾಂ ಹಿ ಸನ್ದೇಹಪದೇಷು ವಸ್ತುಷು
For people of character, when in a dilemma whether a particular conduct or deed is good or bad, their own inner voice or conscience is the final arbiter.
ಅರ್ಥೋ ಹಿ ಕನ್ಯಾ ಪರಕೀಯ ಏವ
A girl child is another man’s property and she is held in trust by the parents.
When one gets recognition, the enthusiasm which was there while endeavouring to get that recognition, cools down.
ಅನುಭವತಿ ಹಿ ಮೂರ್ಧ್ನಾ ಪಾದಪಸ್ತೀವ್ರಮುಷ್ಣಂ |
ಶಮಯತಿ ಪರಿತಾಪಂ ಛಾಯಯಾ ಸಂಶ್ರಿತಾನಾಮ್ ||
The tree bears the intense heat on its head while it lessens the heat for those who take shelter under it.
ಭವನ್ತಿ ನಮ್ರಾಸ್ತರವ ಫಲೋದ್ಗಮೈಃ
ಅನುದ್ಧತಾಃ ಸತ್ಪುರುಷಾ ಸಮೃದ್ಧಿಭಿಃ
ಸ್ವಭಾವ ಏವೈಷ ಪರೋಪಕಾರಿಣಾಮ್
Trees laden with fruits bend down so that people may pluck and enjoy the fruits. Clouds laden with water come down in the form of rain cooling the earth and watering plants and trees. In the same way noble men do not become conceited when fortune embraces them but use their wealth to help others. This is the nature of persons who are always eager to be of help to fellow humans.
ಸ್ರಜಮಪಿ ಶಿರಸ್ಯನ್ಧಃ ಕ್ಷಿಪ್ತಂ ಧುನೋತ್ಯಹಿಶಂಕಯಾ
One who is blind throws away even a garland of flower placed on his head, thinking it is a snake.
Vikramorvasheeyam Natakam (Mahakavi Kalidasa)
ಯದೇವೋಪನತಂ ದು:ಖಾತ್ ಸುಖಂ ತದ್ರಸವತ್ತರಂ|
ನಿರ್ವಾಣಾಯ ತರುಚ್ಛಾಯಾ ತಪ್ತಸ್ಯ ಹಿ ವಿಶೇಷತಃ ||
The happiness one gets after a period of grief is all the more enjoyable. One who is afflicted by the intense heat of the Sun better enjoys the shade given by a tree than one who is not exposed to the Sun’s rays.
ಸಂಗಮಂ ಶ್ರೀಸರಸ್ವತ್ಯೋರ್ಭೂಯಾದುದ್ಭೂತಯೇ ಸತಾಮ್ ||
The conflicting attributes of wealth and learning rarely co-exist in one person. Let there be such a rare union of Goddess Lakshmi and Goddess Saraswati for the benefit of the good people.
ಸರ್ವಸ್ತರತು ದುರ್ಗಾಣಿ ಸರ್ವೇ ಭದ್ರಾಣಿ ಪಶ್ಯತು|
ಸರ್ವಃ ಕಾಮಾನವಾಪ್ನೋತು ಸರ್ವಃ ಸರ್ವತ್ರ ನನ್ದತು ||
May all cross their difficulties. May all see good and auspicious things. May all get their wishes fulfilled. May everyone everywhere be happy.
ಛಿನ್ನಬನ್ಧೇ ಮತ್ಸ್ಯೇ ಪಲಾಯಿತೇ ನಿರ್ವಿಣ್ಣೋ|
ಧೀವರೋ ಭಣತಿ ಧರ್ಮೋ ಮೇ ಭವತಿ ||
When the fishing net was torn and fish leaped into the water the fisherman becomes dejected and consoles himself saying
that he will get merit (punya) (for allowing the fish to escape).
ಸರ್ವತ್ರ ಖಲ್ವಾತ್ಮಾನುಮಾನೇನ ವರ್ತಿತುಂ ಯುಕ್ತಮ್
It is best for every one to act in accordance with one’s status everywhere.
Malavikaagnimitram Natakam(Mahakavi Kalidasa)
ಪುರಾಣಮಿತ್ಯೇವ ನ ಸಾಧು ಸರ್ವಂ
ನ ಚಾಽಪಿ ಕಾವ್ಯಂ ನವಮಿತ್ಯವದ್ಯಮ್|
ಸನ್ತಃ ಪರೀಕ್ಷ್ಯಾನ್ಯತರತ್ ಭಜನ್ತೇ
ಮೂಢ್ಃ ಪರಪ್ರತ್ಯಯನೇಯಬುದ್ಧಿಃ ||
All kavyaas are not good only because they are old. All kaavyas are not bad because they are new. Good and wise people examine both and decide whether a kaavya is good or bad. Only a fool will be blindly led by what others say.
ಅರ್ಥಂ ಸಪ್ರತಿಬನ್ಧಂ ಪ್ರಭುರಧಿಗನ್ತುಂ ಸಹಾಯವಾನೇವ |
ದೃಶ್ಯಂ ತಮಸಿ ನ ಪಶ್ಯನ್ತಿ ದೀಪೇನ ವಿನಾ ಸಚಕ್ಷುರಪಿ ||
Only one who has some one to help will be able to get hold of an object or achieve a goal when there are impediments or obstructions in the process. Even a person with eyes will be able to see an object in darkness only with the help of a lamp.
ಮನ್ದೋಽಪ್ಯಮನ್ದತಾಮೇತಿ ಸಂಸರ್ಗೇಣ ವಿಪಶ್ಚಿತಃ
ಪಙ್ಕಛಿದಃ ಫಲಸ್ಯೇವ ನಿಕರ್ಷೇಣಾವಿಲಂ ಪಯಃ
Even a fool becomes clever by association with the wise just as even muddy water becomes clear when it comes into contact with the fruits of the nirmalee tree (i.e. when the fruits are put in the water).
Kiraataarjuneeyam (Mahakavi Bharavi)
ನಹಿ ಪ್ರಿಯಂ ವಕ್ತುಮಿಚ್ಛನ್ತಿ ಮೃಷಾ ಹಿತೈಷಿಣಃ
Those who mean well for others do not want to please them by false praise.
ನನು ವಕ್ತೃವಿಶೇಷ ನಿ:ಸ್ಪೃಹಾ ಗುಣಗೃಹ್ಯಾ ವಚನೇ ವಿಪಶ್ಚಿತಃ
The wise are indifferent as to who uttered the words, they judge the words by their inherent quality
ನಿವಸನ್ತಿ ಪರಾಕ್ರಮಾಶ್ರಯಾ ನ ವಿಷಾದೇನ ಸಮಂ ಸಮೃದ್ಧಯಃ
Abundance (affluence) co-exists with valour not with melancholy or absence of enthusiasm
ಸಹಸಾ ವಿದಧೀತ ನ ಕ್ರಿಯಾಮವಿವೇಕ: ಪರಮಾಪದಾಂ ಪದಂ|
ವೃಣುತೇ ಹಿ ವಿಮೃಶ್ಯಕಾರಿಣಂ ಗುಣಲುಬ್ಧಾಃ ಸ್ವಯಮೇವ ಸಮ್ಪದಃ ||
Do not embark on an endeavour on the spur of the moment without analysing its pros and cons. The absence of discrimination is the cause of great misfortune. Fortune, ever greedy for good qualities in men, embraces those who engage themselves in an endeavour after consultations and discussions with men of knowledge.
ಸ್ಪೃಹಣೀಯಗುಣೈರ್ಮಹಾತ್ಮಭಿಶ್ಚರಿತೇ ವರ್ತ್ಮನಿ ಯಚ್ಛತಾಂ ಮನಃ
ವಿಧಿಹೇತುರ್ಹೇತುರಾಗಸಾಂ ವಿನಿಪಾತೋಽಪಿ ಸಮುನ್ನತೇಸ್ಸಮಃ
For those who follow in the footsteps of great men possessing highly desirable qualities, even a downfall on account of fate and not involving wrong doings is equal to rising higher in status.
ಯಶೋಽಧಿಗನ್ತುಂ ಸುಖಲಿಪ್ಸಯಾ ವಾ ಮನುಷ್ಯಸಂಖ್ಯಾಮತಿವರ್ತಿತುಂ ವಾ
ನಿರುತ್ಸುಕಾನಾಮಭಿಯೋಗಭಾಜಾಂ ಸಮುತ್ಸುಕೇವಾಙ್ಕಮುಪೈತಿ ಸಿದ್ಧಿಃ
Achievement, it seems, is enthusiastic to sit on the lap of those who engage themselves diligently in an endeavour without caring for fame, happiness or rise in popularity.
ಕಿಂ ವಾವಸಾದಕರ ಆತ್ಮವತಾಮ್
There is nothing which will tire out or disturb the mind of high-minded persons.
ಪ್ರೇಮ ಪಶ್ಯತಿ ಭಯಾನಪದೇಽಪಿ
Love sees cause for fear even in the most unlikely places
Unlucky persons disregard ( do not care about) what is already at hand
ಶರದಮ್ಬುಧರಚ್ಛಾಯಾ ಜತ್ವರ್ಯೋ ಯೌವನಶ್ರಿಯಃ
ಆಪಾತರಮ್ಯಾಃ ವಿಷಯಾಃ ಪರ್ಯನ್ತಪರಿತಾಪಿನಃ
Youth is fleeting like the clouds of autumn. The pleasures of the senses are sweet in the beginning but yield bitter results in the end.
ತದಾ ರಮ್ಯಾಣ್ಯರಮ್ಯಾಣಿ ಪ್ರಿಯಃ ಶಲ್ಯಂ ತದಾಸವಃ |
ತದೇಕಾಕೀ ಸಬಂಧುಸ್ಸನ್ ಇಷ್ಟೇನ ರಹಿತೋ ಯದಾ ||
when one’s loved one is absent, beautiful things seem ugly, what one likes including one’s own life becomes a pain, one feels lonely even in the midst of one’s relatives.
ಜೀಯನ್ತಾಂ ದುರ್ಜಯಾ ದೇಹೇ ರಿಪವಶ್ಚ್ಕ್ಷುರಾದಯಃ |
ಜಿತೇಷು ನನು ಲೋಕೋಽಯಂ ತೇಷು ಕೃತ್ಸ್ನಸ್ತ್ವಯಾ ಜಿತಃ||
The enemies resident in the body, namely the sense organs like the eyes, which are difficult to control, should be conquered. Once they are conquered, it is as good as the whole world has been conquered by you.
ತಾವದಾಶ್ರಯತೇ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮ್ಯಾ ತಾವದಸ್ಯ ಸ್ಥಿರಂ ಯಶಃ |
ಪುರುಷಸ್ತಾವದೇವಾಸೌ ಯಾವನ್ಮಾನಾನ್ನ ಹೀಯತೇ ||
One can accumulate wealth, one’s fame remains stable and one is considered a man of substance only so long as one commands the respect of society.
ಪ್ರಕೃತ್ಯಮಿತ್ರಾ ಹಿ ಸತಾಮಸಾಧವಃ
Evil men are natural enemies of the good ones.
Shishupaalavadham (Maagha kavi)
ಮಹೀಯಾಂಸಃ ಪ್ರಕೃತ್ಯಾ ಮಿತಭಷಿಣಃ
Great men, by nature, do not talk much (they limit their speech to the essentials only)
ಸಂಪದಾ ಸುಸ್ಥಿರಂಮನ್ಯೋ ಭವತಿ ಸ್ವಲ್ಪಯಾಽಪಿ ಯಃ |
ಕೃತಕೃತ್ಯೋ ವಿಧಿರ್ಮನ್ಯೇ ನ ವರ್ಧಯತಿ ತಸ್ಯ ತಾಮ್ ||
In the case of one who is satisfied with a little wealth, even Fate (vidhih) thinks it has done its job and does not increase his wealth. (One should have enough ambition if he wants to accumulate lot of wealth and should not be content with what he has)
ಮಾ ಜೀವನ್ ಯಃ ಪರಾವಜ್ಞಾದು:ಖದಗ್ಧೋಽಪಿ ಜೀವತಿ
One who lives, even after one has been scorched by the humiliation showered on him by others, is as good as dead.
ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯಾಧಿಕರಣಂ ಹಿ ತೇಜಸ್ತಿಮಿರಯೋಃ ಕುತಃ
Saamaanyaadhikaranam hi tejastimirayo kutah?
Where is comparison between light and darkness ? There is no comparison at all.
ಆರಭ್ಯನ್ತೇಽಲ್ಪಮೇವಾಽಜ್ಞಾಃ ಕಾಮಂ ವ್ಯಗ್ರಾ ಭವನ್ತಿ ಚ
ಮಹಾರಂಭಾಃ ಕೃತಧಿಯಃ ತಿಷ್ಠನ್ತಿ ಚ ನಿರಾಕುಲಾ:
Fools start an undertaking in a small way and they struggle to complete it. Great men start in a big way and accomplish the task remaining unruffled in spite of its magnitude.
ಉಪಾಯಮಾಸ್ಥಿತಸ್ಯಾಪಿ ನಶ್ಯನ್ತ್ಯರ್ಥಾಃ ಪ್ರಮಾದತಃ
The undertakings of those who are careless and negligent never bear fruit though they have used proper means.
ಅಯಥಾಬಲಮಾರಂಭೋ ನಿದಾನಂ ಕ್ಷಯಸಮ್ಪದಃ
Embarking on something which is beyond one’s capacity or strength is one of the causes for diminution in one’s wealth
ಬೃಹತ್ಸಹಾಯಾಃ ಕಾರ್ಯಾನ್ತಂ ಕ್ಷೋದೀಯಾನಪಿ ಗಚ್ಛತಿ
Even small people can get their work done with the help of the big people
ಕ್ಷಣೇ ಕ್ಷಣೇ ಯನ್ನವತಾಮುಪೈತಿ ತದೇವ ರೂಪಂ ರಮಣೀಯತಾಯಾಃ
Beauty is that which takes on a new form every minute (so that the one who looks at it is never tired or bored)
Naishadheeya Charitam (Sri Harsha)
ಅಪಾಂ ಹಿ ತೃಪ್ತಸ್ಯ ನ ವಾರಿಧಾರಾ ಸ್ವಾದುಃ ಸುಗಂಧಿಃ ಸ್ವದತೇ ತುಷಾರಾ
One who is satiated with water will not appreciate a pouring of cool water sweet in taste and smell.
ಪಿತ್ತೇನ ದೂನೇ ರಸನೇ ಸಿತಾಪಿ ತಿಕ್ತಾಯತೇ
When the tongue is corrupted by pitta, even sugar tastes bitter.
ಆರ್ಜವಂ ಹಿ ಕುಟಿಲೇಷು ನ ನೀತಿಃ
Straightforwardness is not the right policy when people of crooked mind are concerned.
ಮಿತಂ ಚ ಸಾರಂ ಚ ವಚೋ ಹಿ ವಾಗ್ಮಿತಾ
Oratory is speech which is measured (not verbose) and at the same time pregnant with meaning.
Mrichchhakatikam (Raja Sudraka)
ಶೂನ್ಯಮಪುತ್ರಸ್ಯ ಗೃಹಂ ಚಿರಶೂನ್ಯಂ ನಾಸ್ತಿ ಯಸ್ಯ ಸನ್ಮಿತ್ರಂ|
ಮೂರ್ಖಸ್ಯ ದಿಶಾಃ ಶೂನ್ಯಾಃ ಸರ್ವಂ ಶೂನ್ಯಂ ದರಿದ್ರಸ್ಯ ||
The house of a childless person is shoonya (void), for a person without a good friend it is forever void, the four quarters are void for the fool and for the poor everything is shoonya (void).
ಸುಖಂ ಹಿ ದು:ಖಾನನುಭೂಯ ಶೋಭತೇ ಘನಾಂಧಕಾರೇಷ್ವಿವ ದೀಪದರ್ಶನಮ್
Happiness is more appreciated after one experiences grief over a period in the same way as light is more appreciated by a person in pitch darkness.
ಸುಖಾತ್ತು ಯೋ ಯಾತಿ ನರೋ ದರಿದ್ರತಾಂ ಧೃತಃ ಶರೀರೇಣ ಮೃತಃ ಸ ಜೀವತಿ
One who has enjoyed prosperity is suddenly reduced to penury is as good as dead even while living.
ದಾರಿದ್ರ್ಯಾನ್ಮರಣಾದ್ವಾ ಮರಣಂ ಮಮ ರೋಚತೇ ನ ದಾರಿದ್ರ್ಯಂ |
ಅಲ್ಪಕ್ಲೇಶಂ ಮರಣಂ ದಾರಿದ್ರ್ಯಮನನ್ತಕಂ ದು:ಖಮ್ ||
If I have to choose between death and penury I will choose death not penury. Death involves only a little distress but penury brings unending physical and mental agony.
ದಾರಿದ್ರ್ಯಾತ್ಪುರುಷಸ್ಯ ಬಾಂಧವಜನೋ ವಾಕ್ಯೇ ನ ಸಂತಿಷ್ಠತೇ
ಸುಸ್ನಿಗ್ಧಾಃ ವಿಮುಖೀಭವನ್ತಿ ಸುಹೃದಃ ಸ್ಫಾರೀಭವನ್ತ್ಯಾಪದಃ
ಸತ್ತ್ವಂ ಹ್ರಸ್ವಮುಪೈತಿ ಶೀಲಶಶಿನಃ ಕಾನ್ತಿ ಪರಿಮ್ಲಾಯತೇ
ಪಾಪಮ್ ಕರ್ಮ ಚ ಯತ್ಪರೈರಪಿ ಕೃತಂ ತತ್ತಸ್ಯ ಸಮ್ಭಾವ್ಯತೇ
If one is poor, his relatives don’t heed his words, even loving friends neglect him, his misfortunes spread out, his physical and mental strength shrinks, the moon of his good conduct becomes pale and even the wrongs committed by others are foisted on to him.
ಗುಣಾಃ ಖಲು ಅನುರಾಗಸ್ಯ ಕಾರಣಂ ನ ಬಲಾತ್ಕಾರಃ
It is because of one’s qualities one is loved not because of force.
ಸಾಹಸೇ ಶ್ರೀ ಪ್ರತಿವಸತಿ
In adventure resides Goddess Lakshmi (Only those who are adventurous can amass wealth)
ಸತಾಂ ಸದ್ಭಿಸ್ಸಂಗಃ ಕ್ಥಮಪಿ ಹಿ ಪುಣ್ಯೇನ ಭವತಿ
The meeting of good people with good people somehow happens only by punya (fruit of meritorious deeds done in the past)
ಪ್ರಿಯಪ್ರಾಯಾ ವೃತ್ತಿಃ ವಿನಯಮಧುರೋ ವಾಚಿ ನಿಯಮಃ
ಪ್ರಕೃತ್ಯಾ ಕಲ್ಯಾಣೀ ಮತಿರನವಗೀತಃ ಪರಿಚಯಃ|
ಪುರೋ ವಾ ಪಶ್ಚಾದ್ವಾ ತದಿದಮವಿಪರ್ಯಾಸಿತ ರಸಂ
ರಹಸ್ಯಂ ಸಾಧೂನಾಮನುಪದಿ ವಿಶುದ್ಧಂ ವಿಜಯತೇ||
Loving, polite and pleasing interaction with others, controlled speech, a heart which only thinks of the good of others, introduction which is not boastful, Uniform behaviour before and after (when face to face or behand the back)– These are the secrets, pure and simple, of saintly souls.
ವಜ್ರಾದಪಿ ಕಠೋರಾಣಿ ಮೃದೂನಿ ಕುಸುಮಾದಪಿ |
ಲೋಕೋತ್ತರಾಣಾಂ ಚೇತಾಂಸಿ ಕೋ ನೋ ವಿಜ್ಞಾತುಮರ್ಹತಿ||
The hearts of the best of men who are a cut above the ordinary people are harder than diamond (when facing obstacles or enemies ) and softer than flowers (towards the less privileged and the miserable). Who can understand the hearts of such men?
ನ ಕಿಞ್ಚಿದಪಿ ಕುರ್ವಾಣಃ ಸೌಖ್ಯೈರ್ದು:ಖಾನ್ಯಪೋಹತಿ|
ತತ್ತಸ್ಯ ಕಿಮಪಿ ದ್ರವ್ಯಂ ಯೋ ಹಿ ಯಸ್ಯ ಪ್ರಿಯೋ ಜನಃ
Without doing anything, if one converts the sorrows of another person into joy and happiness, then the first one, who is the object of love for the second one, is a valuable thing for the latter.
ಅನ್ತಃಕರಣತತ್ತ್ವಸ್ಯ ದಮ್ಪತ್ಯೋಃ ಸ್ನೇಹ್ಸಂಶ್ರಯಾತ್|
ಆನನ್ದಗ್ರನ್ಥಿರೇಕೋಽಯಂ ಅಪತ್ಯಮಿತಿ ಬಧ್ಯತೇ ||
The concrete manifestation of the joy arising out of the union of the minds of the husband and the wife is called apatyam (progeny) on which converges the love of both of them.
ಏಕೋ ರಸಃ ಕರುಣ ಏವ ನಿಮಿತ್ತಭೇದಾತ್
ಭಿನ್ನಃ ಪೃಥಕ್ಪೃಥಗಿವಾಶ್ರಯತೇ ವಿವರ್ತಾನ್ |
ಆವರ್ತ ಬುದ್ಬುದ ತರಂಗಮಯಾನ್ ವಿಕಾರಾನ್
ಅಂಭೋ ಯಥಾ ಸಲಿಲಮೇವ ತು ತತ್ಸಮಸ್ತಮ್ || |
Karuna(pathetic) rasa (emotion) is the only one which manifests in the form of other emotions like sringara (love) etc. depending on the underlying circumstances which give rise to the emotion in the same way as bubbles, waves, swell etc are only different forms that water takes. The basic substance is water only.
ಗುಣಿಷು ನ ಚ ಲಿಙ್ಗಂ ನ ಚ ವಯಃ
Good qualities are appreciated in whomsoever they are found. The sex or the age of the person is not taken into consideration.
ಋಷಯೋ ರಾಕ್ಷಸೀಮಾಹುಃ ವಾಚಮುನ್ಮತ್ತದೃಪ್ತಯೋಃ
ಸಾ ಯೋನಿಃ ಸರ್ಚವೈರಾಣಾಂ ಸ ಹಿ ಲೋಕಸ್ಯ ನಿಋತಿಃ
The speech of intoxicated and conceited persons is termed as raakshasee (demoniac) by the rishis. Such speech is the root cause of all enmities and that is hell in this world.
ಕಾಮಂ ದುಗ್ಧೇ ವಿಪ್ರಕೃಷ್ಯತ್ಯಲಕ್ಷ್ಮೀಂ
ಕೀರ್ತಿಂ ಸೂತೇ ದುಷ್ಕೃತಂ ಯಾ ಹಿನಸ್ತಿ |
ತಾಂ ಚಾಪ್ಯೇತಾಂ ಮಾತರಂ ಮಂಗಲಾನಾಂ
ಧೇನುಂ ಧೀರಾಃ ಸೂನೃತಾಂ ವಾಚಮಾಹುಃ ||
Speech that is embellished by truth and love yields all one’s wishes, drives away poverty, builds a reputation, prevents wrong doings in the same way as the Cow Mother which yields all auspicious things.
ವ್ಯತಿಷಜತಿ ಪದಾರ್ಥಾನಾನ್ತರ: ಕೋಽಪಿ ಹೇತು-
ರ್ನ ಖಲು ಬಹಿರುಪಾಧೀನ್ ಪ್ರೀತಯಃ ಸಂಶ್ರಯನ್ತೇ |
ವಿಕಸತಿ ಹಿ ಪತಂಗಸ್ಯೋದಯೇ ಪುಣ್ಡರೀಕಂ
ದ್ರವತಿ ಚ ಹಿಮರಶ್ಮಾವುದ್ಗತೇ ಚನ್ದ್ರಕಾನ್ತಃ ||
It is some internal cause which brings together people. Love does not depend upon external attributes. The lotus blossoms when the sun rises (though the lotus is delicate and the sun’s rays are hot), the moon stone starts melting when exposed to moonlight (though moonlight is soft and the moon stone is hard).
ಪ್ರಿಯಾನಾಶೇ ಕೃತ್ಸ್ನಂ ಕಿಲ ಜಗದರಣ್ಯಂ ಹಿ ಭವತಿ
When the woman one loves is lost the whole world turns into a dense jungle for the one who loves.
ಸ್ನೇಹಚ್ಚ ನಿಮಿತ್ತಸವ್ಯಪೇಕ್ಷಶ್ಚೇತಿ ವಿಪ್ರತಿಷಿದ್ಧಮೇತತ್
Love and existence of a cause for such love, these two are mutually contradictory
Mudraaraakshasam Nataka (Vishakhadatta)
ನ ಯುಕ್ತಂ ಪ್ರಾಕೃತಮಪಿ ರಿಪುಂ ಅವಜ್ಞಾತುಮ್
It is not proper to disregard or neglect even an ordinary enemy.
ಕೀದೃಶಸ್ತೃಣಾನಾಂ ಅಗ್ನಿನಾ ಸಹ ವಿರೋಧ: ?
What kind of enmity the grass has towards fire ? (there is no enmity, it is the nature of fire to burn anything whatsoever)
ಹಿಮವತಿ ದಿವ್ಯೌಷಧಯಃ ಶೀರ್ಷೇ ಸರ್ಪಃ ಸಮಾವಿಷ್ಟ:
There are divine medicinal plants in the Himalayas. But on top of it are serpents
ಪರಾಯತ್ತಃ ಪ್ರೀತೇಃ ಕಥಮಿವ ರಸಂ ವೇತ್ತಿ ಪುರುಷ:?
How does a man who is under the control of another know the joy of love.
ಇಹ ವಿರಚಯನ್ ಸಾಧ್ವೀಂ ಶಿಷ್ಯಃ ಕ್ರಿಯಾಂ ನ ನಿವಾರ್ಯತೇ
ತ್ಯಜತಿ ತು ಯದಾ ಮಾರ್ಗಂ ಮೋಹಾತ್ತದಾ ಗುರುರಙ್ಕುಶಃ
Here the disciple is not prevented from doing anything good. But when he deviates from the right path guru will act as ankusha (weapon used to control an elephant), meaning he will be controlled and brought back to the correct path.
ಜಲಬುದ್ಬುದಸಮಾನಾ ವಿರಾಜಮಾನಾ ಸಮ್ಪತ್ ತಡಿಲ್ಲೇಖೇವ ಸಹಸೋದೇತಿ ನಶ್ಯತಿ ಚ
The glittering wealth is like the bubbles on water. Like lightning it rises suddenly and perishes with the same speed.
ಇಹ ಜಗತಿ ಹಿ ನ ನಿರೀಹದೇಹಿನಂ ಶ್ರಿಯಃ ಸಂಶ್ರಯನ್ತೇ
In this world one who does not put in effort (i.e. one who is inactive) does not acquire wealth
ಶ್ರೇಯಾಂಸಿ ಚ ಸಕಲಾನ್ಯನಲಸಾನಾಂ ಹಸ್ತೇ ನಿತ್ಯಸಾನ್ನಿದ್ಧ್ಯಾನಿ
All prosperity and welfare is always in the hands of those who are always active, who do not know laziness
The angry person, though possessing eyes, is blind.
ನ ಸನ್ತ್ಯೇವ ತೇ ಯೇಷಾಂ ಸತಾಮಪಿ ನ ವಿದ್ಯನ್ತೇ ಮಿತ್ರೋದಾಸೀನಶತ್ರವಃ
There are no such persons who do not have friends, enemies or neutrals even though such persons possess good qualities.
ಉಪಯೋಗಂ ತು ನ ಪ್ರೀತಿರ್ವಿಚಾರಯತಿ
Love does not consider use or benefit.
ಸರ್ವಥಾ ನ ಕಞ್ಚನ ನ ಸ್ಪೃಶತಿ ಶರೀರಧರ್ಮಾಣಮುಪತಾಪಾಃ
It is not possible that one, who is subject to the vagaries of a body, will not ever suffer any disease or discomfort
It is easy to preach to others
ಬಹುಭಾಷಿಣೋ ನ ಶ್ರದ್ದಧತಿ ಲೋಕಃ
People do not listen to one who talks too much.
ಮಿಥ್ಯಾಪಿ ತತ್ತಥಾ ಯಥಾ ಗೃಹೀತಂ ಲೋಕೇನ
Untruth takes the same form as the one given to it by people.
Kaavyameemaamsaa (Kaviraja Rajashekharah)
ಪ್ರಾಯಃ ಪ್ರಾಣಭೃತಾಂ ಪ್ರೇಮಾಣಮನ್ತರೇಣ ನಾನ್ಯದ್ಬನ್ಧನಮಸ್ತಿ
Generally, for the living, there is no bondage except love.
ಪಕ್ಷಪಾತೋ ಹಿ ಗುಣದೋಷೌ ವಿಪರ್ಯಾಸಯತಿ
It is only partiality that interchanges good and bad (i.e. good is considered as bad and bad is considered as good)
ಪರೈಶ್ಚ ಪರೀಕ್ಷಯೇತ್ ಯದುದಾಸೀನಃ ಪಶ್ಯತಿ ನ ತದನುಷ್ಠಾತೇತಿ ಪ್ರಾಯೋ ವಾದಃ
The plan should be got examined by outsiders. The argument is, what the neutral person sees, the one who executes may not see most of the time.
ಅನಿಯತಕಾಲಾಃ ಪ್ರವೃತ್ತಯೋ ವಿಪ್ಲವನ್ತೇ
Actions not done at the appropriate time do not yield the desired result
ಸಮ್ಯಕ್ಸ್ವಾಪೋ ವಪುಷಃ ಪರಮಾರೋಗ್ಯಾಯ
The right kind of sleep is good for a very healthy body.
ಮತಿದರ್ಪಣೇ ಕವೀನಾಂ ವಿಶ್ವಂ ಪ್ರತಿಫಲತಿ
In the mirror of the poet’s mind there is the reflection of the world.
ಅಪ್ರಾಪ್ಯಂ ನಾಮ ನೇಹಾಸ್ತಿ ಧೀರಸ್ಯ ವ್ಯವಸಾಯಿನಃ
There is nothing unattainable to the one who has courage and who works hard.
ಅಶ್ನುತೇ ಸ ಹಿ ಕಲ್ಯಾಣಂ ವ್ಯಸನೇ ಯೋ ನ ಮುಹ್ಯತಿ
Only one who does not lose his cool in adversity will enjoy prosperity
ಏಕಚಿತ್ತೇ ದ್ವಯೋರೇವ ಕಿಮಸಾಧ್ಯಂ ಭವೇದಿತಿ
When two people think alike then what is it that is impossible?
ಕರುಣಾರ್ದ್ರಾ ಹಿ ಸರ್ವಸ್ಯ ಸನ್ತೋಽಕಾರಣಬಾನ್ಧವಾಃ
Good people whose heart is full of sympathy and kindness become, without selfish motives, the friends or relatives of all.
ಕಾಮಂ ವ್ಯಸನವೃಕ್ಷಸ್ಯ ಮೂಲಂ ದುರ್ಜನಸಂಗತಿಃ
The root cause of sorrow is the company of bad people.
ತ್ಯಜನ್ತ್ಯುತ್ತಮಸತ್ವಾ ಹಿ ಪ್ರಾಣಾನಪಿ ನ ಸತ್ಪಥಂ
Those of good nature may give up their life but not the righteous path.
ಪಙ್ಕೋ ಹಿ ನಭಸಿ ಕ್ಷಿಪ್ತಃ ಕ್ಷೇಪ್ತುಃ ಪತತಿ ಮೂರ್ಧನಿ
Mud, thrown at the sky, falls on the head of the person who throws it (If one does something bad it recoils on him)
Panchatantra (Vishnu Sharma)
ನ ಸ್ವಲ್ಪಸ್ಯ ಕೃತೇ ಭೂರಿ ನಾಶಯೇನ್ಮತಿಮಾನ್ನರಃ
The wise man should not incur a big loss for the sake of a little gain.
ಪ್ರಾಕಾಶ್ಯಂ ಸ್ವಗುಣೋದಯೇನ ಗುಣಿನೋ ಗಚ್ಛನ್ತಿ ಕಿಂ ಜನ್ಮನಾ
Good people are noticed by their good qualities, not by birth.
Love and friendship are broken by backbiting.
ಯಸ್ಯ ಬುದ್ಧಿರ್ಬಲಂ ತಸ್ಯ ನಿರ್ಬುದ್ಧೇಸ್ತು ಕುತೋ ಬಲಮ್
He who has brains has strength (power), where is power in a fool?
ಸೇವಾಧರ್ಮಃ ಪರಮ ಗಹನೋ ಯೋಗಿನಾಮಪ್ಯಗಮ್ಯಃ
To be in the service of another is a difficult job which even a yogi may not be able to fulfill.
ಮೃದುನಾ ಸಲಿಲೇನ ಖನ್ಯಮಾನಾನ್ಯವಘರ್ಷನ್ತಿ ಗಿರೇರಪಿ ಸ್ಥಲಾನಿ
Eroded by the soft water incessantly, even the hard stones of the mountain wear away over time.
ದೀರ್ಘೋ ಬುದ್ಧಿಮತೋ ಬಾಹೂ
The hands of the one with brains are long indeed. ( Using his brains he can do many things with hands which less brainy fellows cannot do)
One will face adversity if one does not take precautions to counteract anticipated difficulties or problems
ಬಹೂನಾಮಪ್ಯಸಾರಾಣಾಂ ಸಮವಾಯೋ ಹಿ ದುರ್ಜಯಃ
If a large number of people unite for a purpose they become invincible, though each one, by himself is weak.
One should be circumspect with regard to those who show more than the usual respect or regard.
ಸಂಪತ್ತೌ ಚ ವಿಪತ್ತೌ ಚ ಮಹತಾಮೇಕರೂಪತಾ
In prosperity and adversity the great do not lose their equilibrium.
ಕಃ ಪರಃ ಪ್ರಿಯವಾದಿನಾಮ್
Who is not one’s own for people of soft and soothing speech.
ನಕ್ರಃ ಸ್ವಸ್ಥಾನಮಾಸಾದ್ಯ ಗಜೇನ್ದ್ರಮಪಿ ಕರ್ಷತಿ
The crocodile, in his own habitat, can drag even an elephant into the water.
ಕೃಶೇ ಕಸ್ಯಾಸ್ತಿ ಸೌಹೃದಮ್?
Who will make friends with a lean (down and out) person?
ಆತ್ಮನಃ ಪ್ರತಿಕೂಲಾನಿ ಪರೇಶಂ ನ ಸಮಾಚರೇತ್
That which is hurting oneself should not be done to others.
ಅನಾಗತಂ ಯಃ ಕುರುತೇ ಸ ಶೋಭತೇ
ಸ ಶೋಚ್ಯತೇ ಯೋ ನ ಕರೋತ್ಯನಾಗತಮ್
One who takes precautions before misfortune strikes will prosper. One who does not take action when misfortune is anticipated, will come to grief.
ಸಂತಾಪಯನ್ತಿ ಕಥಮಪಥ್ಯಭುಜಂ ನ ರೋಗಾಃ
How can one be unaffected by diseases if one eats food not conducive to one’s health ?
ಸರ್ವನಾಶೇ ಸಮುತ್ಪನ್ನೇ ಅರ್ಧಂ ತ್ಯಜತಿ ಪಣ್ಡಿತಃ
When everything is at stake the wise give up half of it to save the other half.
ಉದಾರಚರಿತಾನಾಂ ತು ವಸುಧೈವ ಕುಟುಂಬಕಮ್
To those of generous character( disposition) the whole world is one family.
ಯದೃಶೀ ಭಾವನಾ ಯಸ್ಯ ಸಿದ್ಧಿರ್ಭವತಿ ತಾದೃಶೀ
Whatever one dreams or imagines the outcome will be similar.
Hitopadesha (Narayana Panditah)
ಉದ್ಯಮೇನ ಹಿ ಸಿದ್ಧ್ಯನ್ತಿ ಕಾರ್ಯಾಣಿ ನ ಮನೋರಥೈಃ
One’s goal is achieved by industry (hard work) and not by building castles in the air.
ಜ್ಞಾನಂ ಭಾರಃ ಕ್ರಿಯಾಂ ವಿನಾ
Without action knowledge is a burden (knowledge, not put into practice, is sheer waste)