Monday, March 4, 2013

ಗೀತಗೋವಿನ್ದಮ್, ದ್ವಿತೀಯಃ ಸರ್ಗಃ


GITA GOVINDAM (ಗೀತಗೋವಿನ್ದಮ್)
Gita Govindam, lyrical poetry in Sanskrit celebrating the love between Krishna and the gopis,  specifically Radha, is authored by Jayadeva, the ೧೨th century devotee-poet from Orissa.  The basis for this work is the ೫ chapters ೨೯ to ೩೩ of Srimadbhagavatam  (known as Rasapanchadhyaayi) which describe the events  leading to the  rasaleela, the great dance on the banks of the Yamuna where each gopi thinks that Krishna is with her.  Srimadbhagavatam, however, does not specifically talk about a gopi named Radha though Radha is described as the very heart of Krishna in some of the other Puranas.   

The  above theme has been developed in Gita Govindam to such an extent that it  is known as ‘Sringara Mahakavya’ wherein  the predominant sentiment is sringara (erotic sentiment) in all its various moods in relation to the divine love between Radha and Krishna. The ecstasy of union,  the agony of separation, the anxious moments of wait for the loved one are all treated with sensitiviy and poetic excellence.  The whole work is divided into twelve chapters ( sargas), each chapter containing one or more prabandhas. There are ೨೪ prabandhas each containing couplets grouped into eights called  Ashtapadis, songs with a refrain specific to that  Ashatapadi.  There are in all ೨೪ Ashtapadis in Gita Govindam. Each Chapter may have one or more slokas in  different metres of Sanskrit poetry interspersed with the Ashtapadis.  It is said that the Poet-devotee Jayadeva would sing the Ashtapadis and his wife Padmavati would dance to the music.  There have been many choreographic works  to enact and present the Ashtapadis  as  a dance drama. 
Given below is the text of   the Second Chapter (ದ್ವಿತೀಯಃ ಸರ್ಗಃ) with a prosaic translation in English for those who cannot follow the Sanskrit of the original. The translation in no way can do justice to the poetic excellence or the beauty of expression of the original.


ವಿಹರತಿ ವನೇ ರಾಧಾ ಸಾಧಾರಣಪ್ರಣಯೇ ಹರೌ
ವಿಗಲಿತನಿಜೋತ್ಕರ್ಷಾತ್ ಈರ್ಷ್ಯಾವಶೇನ ಗತಾಽನ್ಯತಃ| 
ಕ್ವಚಿದಪಿ ಲತಾಕುಞ್ಜೇ ಗುಞ್ಜನ್ಮಧುವ್ರತಮಣ್ಡಲೀ-
ಮುಖರ ಶಿಖರೇ ಲೀನಾ ದೀನಾಪ್ಯುವಾಚ ರಹಃ ಸಖೀಮ್ || 

Radha is overcome by jealousy seeing Krishna frolicking with the other gopis.  She felt that she no longer had the earlier privileged position in relation to Krishna with whom she was passionately in love.  She felt miserable and, retiring into a shady arbor of  creepers  encircled by buzzing honey bees,  thus spoke to her friend in secret.     


ಚಲಿತ- ದೃಗಞ್ಚಲ-ಚಞ್ಚಲ-ಮೌಲಿ-ಕಪೋಲ-ವಿಲೋಲ-ವತಂಸಮ್|| 
ರಾಸೇ ಹರಿಮಿಹ ವಿಹಿತವಿಲಾಸಂ
ಸ್ಮರತಿ ಮನೋ ಮಮ ಕೃತಪರಿಹಾಸಮ್ || ೧|| 

In my heart of hearts I still remember the captivating form of Krishna, with sweetness spilling from his lips,  enchanting melodies flowing from his flute, eyes wavering, headgear quivering, cheeks trembling.  I remember Hari, his frolics in the rasa dance and his making a laughing stock of me.   

ಪ್ರಚುರ-ಪುರನ್ದರಧನು-ರನುರಞ್ಜಿತ-ಮೇದುರ-ಮುದಿರ-ಸುವೇಷಮ್ || ೨|| (ರಾಸೇ ಹರಿಮಿಹ)

I remember Hari whose hair is adorned with a bunch of peacock feathers and who is decked out in clothes which excel the colours of  the rainbow.  I now remember Hari etc….    

ಬನ್ಧುಜೀವ-ಮಧುರಾಧರ-ಪಲ್ಲವ-ಕಲಿತ-ದರಸ್ಮಿತ-ಶೋಭಮ್ || ೩||  (ರಾಸೇ ಹರಿಮಿಹ)

I remember Hari who likes to plant kisses on the lips of broad-hipped gopis and whose red, sweet and delicate lips sport a radiant smile. I now remember Hari etc……

ಕರಚರಣೋರಸಿ-ಮಣಿಗಣಭೂಷಣ-ಕಿರಣ-ವಿಭಿನ್ನ-ತಮಿಸ್ರಮ್ || ೪||  (ರಾಸೇ ಹರಿಮಿಹ)

I remember Hari who encircles with his hands, soft as leaf buds, a thousand young gopis and who dispels the darkness (of the night)  by the dazzle of ornaments, studded with diamonds and precious gems, adorning his hands, feet and chest.  I now remember Hari etc……..   

ಪೀನಪಯೋಧರ-ಪರಿಸರಮರ್ದನ-ನಿರ್ದಯ-ಹೃದಯ-ಕವಾಟಮ್ || ೫||  (ರಾಸೇ ಹರಿಮಿಹ)

I remember Hari whose sandal paste mark on his forehead is more beautiful than the moon passing through a cloud and who mercilessly presses the ample bosoms of gopis. I now remember Hari etc….
ಪೀತವಸನ-ಮನುಗತ-ಮುನಿ-ಮನುಜ-ಸುರಾಸುರವರಪರಿವಾರಮ್ || ೬||  (ರಾಸೇ ಹರಿಮಿಹ)
I remember Hari whose cheeks are adorned by ear globes beautifully shaped like fish and studded with diamonds, who clothes himself in bright yellow silks and who is followed by groups of hermits, humans, celestials and asura clans.  I now remember Hari etc….

ವಿಶದ-ಕದಮ್ಬತಲೇ-ಮಿಲಿತಂ ಕಲಿಕಲುಷ-ಭಯಂ-ಶಮಯನ್ತಮ್| 
ಮಾಮಪಿ ಕಿಮಪಿ ತರಙ್ಗದನಙ್ಗದೃಶಾ ವಪುಷಾ ರಮಯನ್ತಮ್ || ೭|| (ರಾಸೇ ಹರಿಮಿಹ)

I remember Hari who could be found under the Kadamba tree and who rids us of the fear about the sins of Kali and who delights me with his body having eyes which manifest waves of passionate love. I now remember Hari etc……

ಹರಿಚರಣಸ್ಮರಣಂ ಪ್ರತಿ ಸಂಪ್ರತಿ ಪುಣ್ಯವತಾಂ ಅನುರೂಪಮ್ || ೮||  (ರಾಸೇ ಹರಿಮಿಹ)

This song composed by Jayadeva describing the most beautiful and captivating form of Krishna, the slayer of Madhu, is fit for those meritorious souls who want to remember the lotus feet of Hari.  I now remember Hari etc ……

                   [ End of prabandha – ೫]


ಗಣಯತಿ ಗುಣಗ್ರಾಮಂ ಭ್ರಾಮಂ ಭ್ರಮಾದಪಿ ನೇಹತೇ
ವಹತಿ ಚ ಪರಿತೋಷಂ ದೋಷಂ ವಿಮುಞ್ಚತಿ ದೂರತಃ
ಯುವತಿಷು ವಲತ್ತೃಷ್ಣೇ ಕೃಷ್ಣೇ ವಿಹಾರಿಣಿ ಮಾಂ ವಿನಾ
ಪುನರಪಿ ಮನೋ ವಾಮಂ ಕಾಮಂ ಕರೋತಿ ಕರೋಮಿ ಕಿಮ್

Radha tells her friend (sakhi ) that though Krishna is frolicking with the other gopis leaving her alone, her  (Radha’s) heart is with Krishna only.  It  counts only his good qualities, does not want to see his failings even by mistake.  She is happy by Krishna’s attention and does not find fault with him even otherwise.  “What shall I do when my heart is with him whatever his behaviour?” – Radha  asks her friend  

Here Radha vividly describes her previous intimate meeting with Krishna and requests her friend to bring both of them together again:

ನಿಭೃತ-ನಿಕುಞ್ಜಗತಯಾ ನಿಶಿ ರಹಸಿ ನಿಲೀಯ ವಸನ್ತಮ್| 
ಚಕಿತವಿಲೋಕಿತಸಕಲದಿಶಾ ರತಿರಭಸಭರೇಣ ಹಸನ್ತಮ್ || 
ಸಖಿ ಹೇ ಕೇಶಿಮಥನಮುದಾರಂ
ರಮಯ ಮಯಾ ಸಹ ಮದನಮನೋರಥಭಾವಿತಯಾ ಸವಿಕಾರಮ್|| ೧|| 

I am staying  in a leafy bower and Krishna spends the night secretly there.  As I look apprehensively in all directions Krishna laughs, passionately in love.  O Friend! Struck by Cupid’s arrows I am pining for Krishna, the slayer of Keshi; please unite him with me.      

ಪ್ರಥಮಸಮಾಗಮಲಜ್ಜಿತಯಾ  ಪಟು ಚಾಟುಶತೈರನುಕೂಲಮ್| 
ಮೃದುಮಧುರಸ್ಮಿತಭಾಷಿತಯಾ ಶಿಥಿಲೀಕೃತಜಘನದುಕೂಲಮ್|| ೨||  (ಸಖಿ ಹೇ….)

At our first meeting I am extremely coy.  But Krishna puts me at ease by his kind and witty words. I speak soft and sweet words smiling and Krishna loosens the silks at the hip.  O Friend etc….

ಕಿಸಲಯಶಯನನಿವೇಶಿತಯಾ ಚಿರಮುರಸಿ ಮಮೈವ ಶಯಾನಮ್| 
ಕೃತಪರಿರಮ್ಭಣಚುಮ್ಬನಯಾ ಪರಿರಭ್ಯ ಕೃತಾಧರಪಾನಮ್ || ೩||  (ಸಖಿ ಹೇ….)

I am lying on a bed of tender leaf buds and Krishna lies long on my bosom. I embrace him and kiss him. He too embraces me and drinks at my lips. O Friend etc….

ಅಲಸನಿಮೀಲಿತಲೋಚನಯಾ ಪುಲಕಾವಲಿಲಲಿತಕಪೋಲಮ್| 
ಶ್ರಮಜಲಸಿಕ್ತಕಲೇವರಯಾ ವರಮದನಮದಾದತಿಲೋಲಮ್ || ೪||  (ಸಖಿ ಹೇ….)
I close my eyes indolently.  The dainty hairs on Krishna’s tender cheeks bristle.  I am drenched in sweat.  He is charming in his violent passion.  O Friend etc….

ಕೋಕಿಲಕಲರವಕೂಜಿತಯಾ ಜಿತಮನಸಿಜತನ್ತ್ರವಿಚಾರಮ್| 
ಶ್ಲಥಕುಸುಮಾಕುಲಕುನ್ತಲಯಾ ನಖಲಿಖಿತಘನಸ್ತನಭಾರಮ್ || ೫||  (ಸಖಿ ಹೇ….)

I am cooing like a cuckoo and he wins in the art of love. The flowers in my locks of hair are loosened.  Krishna leaves marks of his nails on my breasts. O Friend etc….

ಚರಣರಣಿತಮಣಿನೂಪುರಯಾ ಪರಿಪೂರಿತಸುರತವಿತಾನಮ್| 
ಮುಖರವಿಶೃಂಖಲಮೇಖಲಯಾ ಸಕಚಗ್ರಹಚುಮ್ಬನದಾನಮ್ || ೬||  (ಸಖಿ ಹೇ….)

The anklets in my feet make tinkling sounds.  Krishna has accomplished Cupid’s mission. My loosened girdle is making sounds. He takes hold of my locks and plants a kiss on my lips.  O Friend etc….

ರತಿಸುಖಸಮಯರಸಾಲಸಯಾ ದರಮುಕುಲಿತನಯನಸರೋಜಮ್| 
ನಿಃಸಹನಿಪತಿತತನುಲತಯಾ ಮಧುಸೂದನಮುದಿತಮನೋಜಮ್ || ೭||  (ಸಖಿ ಹೇ….)

After the ecstasy of love I lazily lie still.  Krishna slightly closes his lotus-eyes. My slender body slumps idly.  Seeing me in this state Krishna’s desire wells up again.
O Friend etc….
ಶ್ರೀಜಯದೇವ ಭಣಿತಮಿದಮತಿಶಯಮಧುರಿಪುನಿಧುವನಶೀಲಮ್| 
ಸುಖಮುತ್ಕಣ್ಠಿತರಾಧಿಕಯಾಕಥಿತಂ ವಿತನೋತು ಸಲೀಲಮ್ || ೮||  (ಸಖಿ ಹೇ….)

This leela of the enemy of Madhu is described by Jayadeva as told by Radha to her friend.  May this bestow happiness on those who hear this.

ಮಾಮುದ್ವೀಕ್ಷ್ಯ ವಿಲಜ್ಜಿತಸ್ಮಿತಸುಧಾಮುಗ್ಧಾನನಂ ಕಾನನೇ
ಗೋವಿನ್ದಂ ವ್ರಜಸುನ್ದರೀಗಣವೃತಂ ಪಶ್ಯಾಮಿ ಹೃಷ್ಯಾಮಿ ಚ || 
I see Krishna surrounded by a group of beauties of Vraja who are looking at him furtively with sidelong glances. Seeing me, his flute slips from his hands and his brows are arched.  His cheek are wet with a profusion of sweat.  His face lights up with a bashful sweet smile.   I bristle with unbounded joy.  

ವಿಕಾಶಃ ಕಾಸಾರೋಪವನಪವನೋಽಪಿ ವ್ಯಥಯತಿ|
ಅಭಿಭ್ರಾಮ್ಯದ್ಭೃಙ್ಗೀರಣಿತರಮಣೀಯಾ ನ ಮುಕುಲ-
ಪ್ರಸೂತಿಶ್ಚೂತಾನಾಂ ಸಖಿ ಶಿಖರಿಣೀಯಂ ಸುಖಯತಿ ||

The flowering of the fresh ashoka creeper,  the cool breeze from the lagoon or the mini forest, the buzz of swarms of bees or the budding of the mango trees – all these do not bring cheer; on the other hand they only enhance the agony of separation.

ಗೋಪೀನಾಂ ನಿಭೃತಂ ನಿರೀಕ್ಷ್ಯ ದಯಿತಾ ಕಾಶ್ಚಿಚ್ಚಿರಂ ಚಿನ್ತಯ-
ನ್ನಂತರ್ಮುಗ್ಧಮನೋಹರೋ ಹರತು ವಃ ಕ್ಲೇಶಂ ನವಃ ಕೇಶವಃ||

Krishna surveys the gopis  surrounding him – their smiles, their loosened locks of hair, their arched eye brows, their hands, their breasts  etc and after long contemplation cosidered Radha to be the most lovable and beautiful. May that renewed Keshava wipe out all your physical and mental distress.
                   [End of prabandha ೬]
ಇತಿ ಶ್ರೀಗೀತಗೋವಿನ್ದೇ  ಶೃಙ್ಗಾರಮಹಾಕಾವ್ಯೇ ಶ್ರೀಕೃಷ್ಣದಾಸಜಯದೇವಕೃತೌ
ಅಕ್ಲೇಶಕೇಶವೋನಾಮ ದ್ವಿತೀಯಃಸರ್ಗಃ

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