Friday, March 1, 2013

ವಾಲ್ಮೀಕಿರಾಮಾಯಣದಿಂದ ಸೂಕ್ತಿಗಳು


Ramayana and Mahabharata are the two epics which have so mingled with the collective conscience of our people that,  to this day,  the ideas and values in them continue to influence our lives.  Ramayana is considered the Adi Kavya,, the first ever epic poem written.  Maharshi  Valmiki is known as the Adi Kavi,  the first ever poet in the history of Sanskrit literature, nay, the history of world literature.
Ramayana pictures the whole gamut of life of an individual.  It throws light on his/her duties and responsibilities in various roles as father, mother, son, daughter, husband, wife, brother, sister, friend, master, servant, teacher and so on.  Valmiki  presents Rama as the ideal man and Sita as the ideal woman. However,  later versions of Ramayana like Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas, Kamba Ramayanam in Tamil by poet Kamban, Adhyatma Ramayana in Malayalam by poet Ezuthachan and Ranganatha Ramayana in Telugu present Rama as an incarnation of Lord Vishnu.

The quotes selected and presented here are the words of the different characters of this great epic uttered in different situations.  The ideas and values contained in them form part of what is called sanatana dharma and are eternally true for all ges. In these times of social upheaval it is all the more necessary for us to get back to these fundamental principles of life and living which we have almost forgotten in the rat race for material gains.

ಆಹುಃ ಸತ್ಯಂ ಹಿ ಪರಮಂ ಧರ್ಮಂ ಧರ್ಮವಿದೋ ಜನಾಃ ೨.೧೪.೩

Those who have knowledge of dharma say that Truth is the highest dharma
[Context:  Dasaratha had promised three boons to Kaikeyi when she saved his life during one of those battles he fought on the side of the Devas.  When the coronation of Rama is announced, Kaikeyi asks for two of the boons from Dasaratha.  She wants Bharata to be installed as the King and Rama to be sent to the forest for fourteen years. When Dasaratha was in a dilemma, Kaikeyi says that Truth is the highest dharma, implying that Dasaratha should keep his promise as otherwise he will be guilty of transgressing dharma.]

ದುರ್ಲಭಂ ಹಿ ಸದಾ ಸುಖಂ  ೨.೧೮.೧೩

To be happy always is something which is difficult to achieve.  That is to say,  happiness and sorrow alternate in one’s life and there cannot be uninterrupted happiness alone.
[Context: Rama’s words to Kaikeyi when he saw his father deep in sorrow and in tears at the prospect of Rama going  into the forest for ೧೪ years.]

ರಾಮೋ ದ್ವಿರ್ನಾಭಿಭಾಷತೇ  ೨.೧೮.೩೦

Once Rama gives his word,  that is final and it is kept at any cost.  There is no question of repetition of the same a second time.
[Context: Rama’s words to Kaikeyi : tat broohi vachanam devi raajno yadabhikaangkshitam   Karishye pratijaane cha ramo dwir naabhibhaashate      “O Devi!  Please tell me what the King wants of me.  I promise that I will carry out whatever is his wish.  What Rama says once he carries out; there is no looking back.”]

ಗುರೋರಪ್ಯವಲಿಪ್ತಸ್ಯ ಕಾರ್ಯಾಕಾರ್ಯಮಜಾನತಃ |
ಉತ್ಪಥಂ ಪ್ರತಿಪನ್ನಸ್ಯ ಕಾರ್ಯಂ ಭವತಿ ಶಾಸನಮ್|| |  ೨.೧೧.೧೩

One who is haughty, who does not know whether what he does is right or wrong and who has taken to the wrong path is to be disciplined even if he is guru, parent or an elder in age or learning.
[Context: These are words addressed to Rama by Lakshamana who  is angry at the turn of events with Rama preparing himself to live ೧೪ years in the forests because of the boon granted by Dasaratha to Kaikeyi.  By the word ‘guru’ Lakshmana, by implication, is referring to Dasaratha in this context. ]  

ವಿಕ್ಲವೋ ವೀರ್ಯಹೀನೋ ಯಃ ಸ ದೈವಮನುವರ್ತತೇ  |
ವೀರಾಃ ಸಮ್ಭಾವಿತಾತ್ಮಾನೋ ನ ದೈವಂ ಪರ್ಯುಪಾಸತೇ||  ೨.೨೩.೧೬

Only the timid and the weak leave things to  destiny (daivam)  but the strong and the self-confident never bank on destiny or luck (bhagya)
[Context: These are words of Lakshmana addressed to Rama when the latter says that neither Kaikeyee nor his father was responsible for his banishment to the forests.  It was all the play of destiny ( daivam).]
ಯೋ ಹಿ ದತ್ವಾ ದ್ವಿಪಶ್ರೇಷ್ಠಂ ಕಕ್ಷ್ಯಾಯಾಂ ಕುರುತೇ ಮನಃ |
ರಜ್ಜುಸ್ನೇಹೇನ ಕಿಂ ತಸ್ಯ ತ್ಯಜತಃ ಕುಞ್ಜರೋತ್ತಮಮ್|| |  ೨.೩೭.೩

If a  person is gifting away his elephant but his heart is set on the rope used for tying the elephant, of what use is his attachment to the rope when he is giving away the elephant itself.

[Context: Dasaratha wanted to send the royal retinue to follow Rama to the forests.  Kaikeyi objects to this. Rama says that when he is abandoning the kingdom itself what royal paraphernalia to him is. It is like giving away the elephant and setting one’s heart on the rope with which the elephant is tied.]

ನಾತನ್ತ್ರೀ ವಿದ್ಯತೇ ವೀಣಾ ನಾಚಕ್ರೋ ವಿದ್ಯತೇ ರಥಃ|
ನಾಪತಿಃ ಸುಖಮೇಧೇತ ಯಾ ಸ್ಯಾದಪಿ ಶತಾತ್ಮಜಾ ||  ೨.೩೯.೨೯

A Veena cannot exist without its strings.  A chariot cannot exist without its wheels.  Without her husband a woman can never live happily even though she has a hundred sons.

[Context: Sita’s response to Kausalya’s advice asking her to respect and obey Rama in spite of his being deprived of the kingdom.]

ಶೋಕೋ ನಾಶಯತೇ  ಧೈರ್ಯಂ ಶೋಕೋ ನಾಶಯತೇ ಶ್ರುತಂ|
ಶೋಕೋ ನಾಶಯತೇ ಸರ್ವಂ ನಾಸ್ತಿ ಶೋಕೋಸಮೋ ರಿಪುಃ||  ೨.೬೨.೧೫

Grief destroys one’s courage.  It destroys one’s learning.  It destroys one’s everything.  There is no enemy greater than grief.
[Context: These are the words of Kausalya.  She had spoken harsh words to Dasratha for sending Rama to the forests.  She repents and says that she spoke thus because of  her intense grief on Rama being sent to the forests]

ಯದನ್ನಃ ಪುರುಷೋ ಭವತಿ ತದನ್ನಾಸ್ತಸ್ಯ ದೇವತಾಃ ||  ೨.೧೦೩.೩೦

Whatever is one’s food, the same food shall be offered to one’s gods.
[Context: Rama hears the news of Dasaratha’s death from Bharata.  He performs the obsequies of his father.  He says that one can offer to the departed souls only what one is having for food i.e. fruits and roots which are the only things available in the forest.]

ಕುಲೀನಮಕುಲೀನಂ ವಾ ವೀರಂ ಪುರುಷಮಾನಿನಂ |
ಚಾರಿತ್ರಮೇವ ವ್ಯಾಖ್ಯಾತಿ ಶುಚಿಮ್ ವಾ ಯದಿ ವಾಽಶುಚಿಮ್ || ೨.೧೦೯.೪

ಉದ್ವಿಜನ್ತೇ ಯಥಾ ಸರ್ಪಾತ್ ನರಾದನೃತ ವಾದಿನಃ  | ೨.೧೦೯.೧೨

ಸತ್ಯಮೇವೇಶ್ವರೋ ಲೋಕೇ ಸತ್ಯೇ ಧರ್ಮಃ ಸಮಾಶ್ರಿತಃ  |   ೨.೧೦೯.೧೩

Only a person’s  conduct and character proclaim whether he is born in a good family or whether he is boasting about himself or whether he is unblemished (shuchih) or blemished (ashuchih).
Just as people are afraid of serpents they are afraid of persons who  utter lies.
Truth controls this world and dharma is rooted in truth.

[Context: These are words of Rama to Maharshi Jabali who advises him to ignore his father’s wishes and go back to Ayodhya. The Maharshi speaks lika a nastika and makes disparaging remarks about dharma, truth, good conduct, character  etc.  Rama, however, reiterates the values of truth, dharma and character in a man’s life. ]

ನ ಸುಪ್ರತಿಕರಂ ತತ್ತು ಮಾತ್ರಾ ಪಿತ್ರಾ ಚ ಯತ್ಕೃತಂ  |  ೨.೧೧೧.೯

It is difficult for the children to repay the debt of  what  the mother and the father have done to bring them up.

[Context: Rama’s words  to Vasishtha who accompanies Bharata to the forests for bringing back Rama to Ayodhya]

ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮೀ ಚನ್ದ್ರಾದಪೇಯಾದ್ವಾ ಹಿಮವಾನ್ ವಾ ಹಿಮಂ ತ್ಯಜೇತ್|
ಅತೀಯಾದ್ಸಾಗರೋ ವೇಲಾಂ ನ ಪ್ರತಿಜ್ಞಾಮಹಂ ಪಿತುಃ||   ೨.೧೧೨.೧೮

Beauty may leave the moon,  Himavaan may become bereft of snow, the ocean may transgress its shores but I will never violate the promise given by my father.

[Context: Rama’s words to Bharata when he requests him to return to Ayodhya and rule the Kingdom.]

ಧರ್ಮಾದರ್ಥಃ ಪ್ರಭವತಿ ಧರ್ಮಾತ್ ಪ್ರಭವತೇ ಸುಖಂ|
ಧರ್ಮೇಣ ಲಭತೇ ಸರ್ವಂ ಧರ್ಮಸಾರಮಿದಂ ಜಗತ್ ||   ೩.೯.೩೦

ಆತ್ಮಾನಂ ನಿಯಮೈಃ ತೈಸ್ತೈಃ ಕರ್ಶಯಿತ್ವಾ ಪ್ರಯತ್ನತಃ |
ಪ್ರಾಪ್ಯತೇ ನಿಪುಣೈರ್ಧರ್ಮೋ ನ ಸುಖಾತ್  ಲಭತೇ ಸುಖಮ್ ||  ೩.೯.೩೧

Wealth springs from dharma, from dharma comes happiness and one gets everything from dharma.  Dharma is the essence of this world.

Dharma, which is the source of all happiness, can be attained even by a skilled person, only after observing various disciplines for his own purification and after great effort subjecting himself to great strain and stress.  One cannot attain such dharma by leading a life given to the pleasures of the senses.

[Context: Sita apprehands that Rama, armed always,  as he is,  with his bow and arrows,  may tend  to hurt animals in the forest or hurt thoserakshasas  from whom there is no threat. She emphasises the importance  of ahimsa and other virtues and requests Rama to be compassionate, kind and merciful.]

ಅನಾಗತವಿಧಾನಂ ತು ಕರ್ತವ್ಯಂ ಶುಭಮಿಚ್ಛತಾ|
ಆಪದಾಶಂಕಮಾನೇನ ಪುರುಷೇನ ವಿಪಶ್ಚಿತಾ ||  ೩.೨೪.೧೧

A wise man should foresee tragedy or misfortune and take action to prevent or overcome such tragedy or misfortune well before it strikes.  Thus only he can enjoy a safe and good life.
[Context: There are bad omens in the forest and Rama anticipates trouble from Khara, the terrible raakshasa.   He therefore forewarns Lakshmana in these words and asks him to take Sita to a safe place.]

ಕರ್ಮ ಲೋಕವಿರುದ್ಧಂ ತು ಕುರ್ವಾಣಂ ಕ್ಷಣದಾಚರ|
ಕ್ಷ್ಣಂ ಸರ್ವಜನೋ ಹನ್ತಿ ಸರ್ಪಂ ದುಷ್ಟಮಿವಾಗತಮ್ ||  ೩.೨೯.೪

ನ ಚಿರಂ ಪಾಪಕರ್ಮಾಣಃ ಕ್ರೂರಾಃ ಲೋಕಜುಗುಪ್ಸಿತಾಃ |
ಐಶ್ವರ್ಯಂ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ಯ ತಿಷ್ಠನ್ತಿ ಶೀರ್ಣಮೂಲಾಃ ಇವ ದ್ರುಮಾಃ||  ೩.೨೯.೫

ನ ಚಿರಾತ್ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ಯತೇ ಲೋಕೇ ಪಾಪಾನಾಂ ಕರ್ಮಣಾಂ ಫಲಂ|
ಸವಿಷಾಣಾಮಿವಾನ್ನಾನಾಂ ಭುಕ್ತಾನಾಂ ಕ್ಷಣದಾಚರ||  ೩.೨೯.೯

O Rakshasa! People will kill, as they kill a poisonous snake, a cruel and ferocious person whose actions are against the people and hurt them.

Those cruel persons who, by their sinful actions, inflict physical and mental injury on others are detested by people.   Though such people may amass immense wealth they cannot retain it for long.  They will perish like a tree whose roots have become decayed.
In this world, one will, before long, suffer the consequences of one’s sinful actions in the same way as poisonous food taken by a person kills him within a short time.

[Context: Rama admonishes the rakshasa Khara in these words and warns him that his sins will overtake him and cause him severe physical and mental suffering.]

ಪರದಾರಾಭಿಮರ್ಶಾತ್ತು ನಾನ್ಯತ್ ಪಾಪತರಂ ಮಹತ್|     ೩.೩೮.೩೦

There is no greater sin than coveting another man’s wife.

[Context: This is Maaricha’s warning to Ravana who is bent on abducting Sita and solicits the  help of Maaricha in this misadventure.]

ಸ ಭಾರಃ ಸೌಮ್ಯ ಭರ್ತವ್ಯೋ ಯೋ ನರಂ ನಾವಸಾದಯೇತ್ |
ತದನ್ನಮಪಿ ಭೋಕ್ತವ್ಯಂ ಜೀರ್ಯತೇ ಯದನಾಮಯಮ್ ||  ೩.೫೦.೧೮

ಯತ್ಕೃತ್ವಾ ನ ಭವೇತ್ ಧರ್ಮೋ ನ ಕೀರ್ತಿರ್ನ ಯಶೋ ಧ್ರುವಂ|
ಶರೀರಸ್ಯ ಭವೇತ್ ಖೇದಃ ಕಸ್ತತ್ಕರ್ಮ ಸಮಾಚರೇತ್ ||   ೩.೫೦.೧೯

One should  lift  only such weight as will not exhaust one beyond a limit.  One should eat only such food as will easily digest.
Who will engage himself in such action as will get him neither dharma nor reputation  nor lasting fame and which will only result in physical exhaustion?

[Context: Jatayu’s advice to Ravana to refrain from abducting Sita.  This is going to cost him dearly, something which he will not be able to bear.]

ಮುಮುರ್ಷೂಣಾಮ್ ತು ಸರ್ವೇಷಾಮ್ ಯತ್ಪಥ್ಯಂ ತನ್ನ ರೋಚತೇ |  ೩.೫೩.೧೭

One who is bent on courting his death will not take kindly to sage counsel given by his well-wishers

[Context: Sita admonishes Ravana for his despicable act and says that he will not hear good advice as he is bent on dying at the hands of Rama.]
ಉತ್ಸಾಹೋ ಬಲವಾನಾರ್ಯ ನಸ್ತ್ಯುತ್ಸಾಹಾತ್ ಪರಂ ಬಲಂ|
ಸೋತ್ಸಾಹಸ್ಯಹಿ ಲೋಕೇಷು ನ ಕಿಞ್ಚಿದಪಿ ದುರ್ಲಭಂ ||   ೪.೧.೧೨೧

Enthusiasm has great strength.  There is no greater strength than enthusiasm.  There is nothing which is not attainable in this world for the enthusiastic.

[Context: Lakshmana’s words to cheer up Rama who is deep in sorrow at the loss of Sita.  He emphasizes that Rama should come out of his grief and be cheerful and enthusiastic about seeking out Sita’s whereabouts.]

ದು:ಖಿತಃ ಸುಖಿತೋ ವಾಪಿ ಸಖ್ಯುರ್ನಿತ್ಯಂ ಸಖಾ ಗತಿಃ |  ೪.೮.೪೦

Whether in sorrow or in happiness a friend  is always a friend’s support.
[Context: Sugreeva’s words to Rama after he narrates his sorrowful tale to Rama.]

ಜ್ಯೇಷ್ಠ ಭ್ರಾತಾ ಪಿತಾ ವಾಪಿ ಯಶ್ಚ ವಿದ್ಯಾಂ ಪ್ರಯಚ್ಛತಿ |
ತ್ರಯೋ ವೈ ಪಿತರೋ ಜ್ಞೇಯಾಃ ಧರ್ಮೇ ಚ ಪಥಿ ವರ್ತಿನಃ ||  ೪.೧೮.೧೩

One’s elder brother, father and the teacher who gives knowledge -  
all these three, treading the path of dharma,  are to be considered as one’s father.

[Context: Rama is justifying his action in killing Vali from behind a tree.  Vali, being the elder brother of Sugreeva should have been like a father to him.  Instead, he had taken away  Sugreeva’s wife causing the latter mental agony.]

ಅರ್ಥೀನಾಮ್ ಉಪಪನಾನಾಂ ಪೂರ್ವಂ ಚಾಪ್ಯುಪಕಾರಿಣಾಂ|
ಆಶಾಮ್ ಸಮ್ಶ್ರುತ್ಯ ಯೋ ಹನ್ತಿ ಸ  ಲೋಕೇ ಪುರುಷಾಧಮಃ|| ೪.೩೦.೭೧

A person gives hope to another who requests for money or other material thing or to one who had helped that person in the past.   Having given them hope, if that person disappoints them by not keeping his promise, then he is the worst kind of person in this world.

[Context: Rama’s words to Lakshmana whom he sends to Sugreeva to remind him of the need to take urgent measures for searching out Sita.  Sugreeva, having promised help in finding Sita, seemed to be taking it easy.]

ಗೋಘ್ನೇ ಚೈವ ಸುರಾಪೇ ಚ ಚೌರೇ ಭಗ್ನವ್ರತೇ ತಥಾ |
ನಿಷ್ಕೃತಿರ್ನಿಹಿತಾ ಸದ್ಭಿಃ ಕೃತಘ್ನೇ ನಾಸ್ತಿ ನಿಷ್ಕೃತಿಃ  || ೪.೩೪.೧೨

There is atonement, laid down by men of character,  for one who kills a cow, consumes intoxicating drinks, steals or  breaks one’s promise but there is no atonement for one who  is ungrateful.

[Context: These are words of Lakshmana to Sugreeva who seemed to have forgotten whatever Rama had done for him.  He seemed to be delaying action to find the whereabouts of Sita.]

ನ ಕಶ್ಚಿನ್ನಾಪರಾಧ್ಯತಿ | ೪.೩೬.೧೧
 To err is human, there is none who has not erred some time or other.

[Context: Sugreeva apologizes to Lakshmana and says he had erred and he would now send his men in search of Sita.]

ಅನಿರ್ವೇದಂ ಚ ದಾಕ್ಷ್ಯಂ ಚ ಮನಸಶ್ಚಾಪರಾಜಯಂ
ಕಾರ್ಯ್ಸಿದ್ಧಿಕರಾಣ್ಯಾಹುಃ||  ೪.೪೯.೬

Not getting dejected or depressed, skill in doing one’s job and not losing heart in the face of difficulties – these are the qualities which enable one to achieve one’s goals.

[Context: These are the words of Angada, son of Sugriva, to his team members who are on the mission of finding  the whereabouts of Sita.  They were beginning to lose heart when, in spite of extensive search,  they could not find Sita.]

ನ ವಿಷಾದೇ ಮನಃ ಕಾರ್ಯಂ ವಿಷಾದೋ ದೋಷವತ್ತರಃ|
ವಿಷಾದೋ ಹನ್ತಿ ಪುರುಷಂ ಬಾಲಂ ಕ್ರುದ್ಧ ಇವೋರಗಃ||  ೪.೬೪.೯

One should not let one’s mind to be overcome by melancholy.   Melancholy or moroseness   is  a very bad thing.  It kills (destroys) a man just as an angered serpent  kills a child.

[Context: These are the words of Angada to the Vanaras who were beginning to lose heart looking at the vast expanse of the ocean which had to be crossed to reach Lanka where Sita was kept in captivity]

ಅನಿರ್ವೇದಃ ಶ್ರಿಯೋ ಮೂಲಂ ಅನಿರ್ವೇದಃ ಪರಂ ಸುಖಂ | ೫.೧೨.೧೦
ವಿನಾಶೇ ಬಹವೋ ದೋಷಾಃ ಜೀವನ್ನಾಪ್ನೋತಿ ಭದ್ರಕಂ|   ೫.೧೩.೪೫

Not getting depressed, frustrated or dejected is the basis for all prosperity and happiness.

Giving up one’s life produces nothing good, to continue to live is the way to joy and happiness.

[Context: Soliloquy of Hanuman when, in spite of extensive search in the palaces of Ravana, he does not find Sita. He was beginning to lose heart and was even thinking of taking his life.  He then tells himself that he should not think on those lines.]

ಧಿಗಸ್ತು ಪರವಶ್ಯತಾಮ್ | ೫.೨೫.೨೦
ದೃಶ್ಯಮಾನೇ ಭವೇತ್ ಪ್ರೀತಿಃ ಸೌಹೃದಂ ನಾಸ್ತ್ಯದೃಶ್ಯತಃ | ೫.೨೬.೪೧

To be under the control of another is to be condemned; it is the worst thing that can befall a person.

Love and affection is possible only when a person is being seen and is not out of sight in a far away place.

[Context: Soliloquies of Sita who is being threatened by theRakshasis guarding her to accept the advances of Ravana which Sita totally refuses to do.]

ಕಲ್ಯಾಣೀ ಬತ ಗಾಥೇಯಂ ಲೌಕಿಕೀ ಪ್ರತಿಭಾತಿ ಮೇ |
ಏತಿ ಜೀವನ್ತಮಾನನ್ದೋ ನರಂ ವರ್ಷಶತಾದಪಿ||  ೫.೩೪.೬

The saying “If one continues to live, happiness and bliss may come even after a gap of a hundred years” seems to me an auspicious one.

[Context: Sita’s words to Hanuman from whom she hears news of Rama and Lakshmana and their efforts to kill Ravana and the Rakshasas and release her from captivity. She had earlier contemplated suicide but now she realizes that living was a good thing because happiness will not elude one for ever.]

ಆನೃಶಂಸ್ಯಂ ಪರೋ ಧರ್ಮಃ|  ೫.೩೮.೩೯

To be compassionate, kind, merciful and humane is a great virtue.
[Context: Sita’s message to Rama through Hanuman entreating Rama to show some mercy one her and rescue her without further delay.]

ನ ಸಾಮ ರಕ್ಷಸ್ಸು ಗುಣಾಯ ಕಲ್ಪತೇ|
ನ ದಾನಮರ್ಥೋಪಚಿತೇಷು ಯುಜ್ಯತೇ||  ೫.೪೧.೩

Words of conciliation to the rakshasas will not bring out any good (Soft words will not have any effect on a rakshasa). In the same way one cannot pacify an immensly wealthy person by offering him material things.

[ Context: Soliloquy of Hanuman before he starts destroying theashoka vana  of Ravana and thus show his valour which only will have some effect on the Rakshasas, not saama or daana ]
ಕೋಪಂ ನ ಗಚ್ಛನ್ತಿ ಹಿ ಸತ್ತ್ವವನ್ತಃ

The strong of heart do not become angry.

ವಾಚ್ಯಾವಾಚ್ಯಂ ಪ್ರಕುಪಿತೋ ನ ವಿಜಾನಾತಿ ಕರ್ಹಿಚಿತ್|
ನಾಕಾರ್ಯಮಸ್ತಿ ಕ್ರುದ್ಧಸ್ಯ ನಾವಾಚ್ಯಂ ವಿದ್ಯತೇ ಕ್ವಚಿತ್ ||  ೫.೫೫.೫

ನಾಗ್ನಿರಗ್ನೌ ಪ್ರವರ್ತತೇ  ೫.೫೫.೨೨

One who is angry does not distinguish between what can be spoken and what is unspeakable. There is nothing which an angry man cannot do meaning he can commit any crime.  There is nothing unspeakable for him.

Fire cannot act on fire.

[Context: Soliloquy of Hanuman when, after burning down the palaces in Lanka from the fire set to his tail, he becomes worried that Sita might have been hurt by the fire.  He chides himself for getting angry and observes that an angry person loses his capacity to think and does not know what the right thing to say or do is.  On further contemplation, Hanuman realizes that apativrata like Sita herself is like fire.  How can fire act on fire? ]

ನಿರುತ್ಸಾಹಸ್ಯ ದೀನಸ್ಯ ಶೋಕಪರ್ಯಾಕುಲಾತ್ಮನಃ|
ಸರ್ವಾರ್ಥಾಃ ವ್ಯವಸೀದನ್ತಿ ವ್ಯಸನಂ ಚಾಧಿಗಚ್ಛತಿ  ||  ೬ .೨.೬

The efforts of one who is unenthusiastic, weak and immersed in sorrow cannot bring out any good 
and he comes to grief.

[Context:  These are words of Sugreeva to enthuse Rama and lift his spirits. Hanuman has brought   news  of Sita and Rama’s joy knows no bounds.  At the same time he is worried about how he and his army of vanaras will cross the ocean and reach Lanka to fight with the Rakshasas and rescue Sita.]

ಮನ್ತ್ರಮೂಲಂ ಚ ವಿಜಯಂ ಪ್ರವದನ್ತಿ ಮನಸ್ವಿನಃ |   ೬.೬.೫

Wise men say that the root of victory is consultation and discussion with learned and  wise men. .

[Context: These are words of Ravana to his ministers. Rattled by the destruction and devastation committed by Hanuman in Lanka, Ravana convenes an assembly of his ministers and invites their suggestions about the next course of  action.]

ಜಾನಾಮಿ ಶೀಲಂ ಜ್ಞಾತೀನಾಂ ಸರ್ವಲೋಕೇಷು ರಾಕ್ಷಸ!
ಹೃಷ್ಯನ್ತಿ ವ್ಯಸನೇಷ್ವೇತೇ ಜ್ಞಾತೀನಾಮ್ ಜ್ಞಾತಯಸ್ಸದಾ||   ೬.೧೬.೩

ಯಥಾ ಪುಷ್ಕರಪತ್ರೇಷು ಪತಿತಾಸ್ತೋಯಬಿನ್ದವಃ |
ನ ಶ್ಲೇಷಮಭಿಗಚ್ಛನ್ತಿ ತಥಾನಾರ್ಯೇಷು ಸೌಹೃದಮ್||   ೬.೧೬.೧೧

I know the nature of one’s relatives.  Relatives  always  rejoice when their relatives are in trouble.

Just like drops of water on lotus leaves do not stick to the leaves, in the same way is the friendship with people who lack character.

[Context: These are sarcastic remarks made by Ravana against Vibheeshana who had advised Ravana to return Sita to Rama with honour. Ravana is not prepared to accept this sage advice.  On the other hand he was terribly angry with Vibhishana for suggesting such a course of action.]

ಆಕಾರಃ ಛಾದ್ಯಮನೋಽಪಿ ನ ಶಕ್ಯೋ ವಿನಿಗೂಹಿತುಂ|
ಬಲಾದ್ಧಿ ವಿವೃಣೋತ್ಯೇವ ಭಾವಮನ್ತರ್ಗತಂ ನೃಣಾಮ್ ||  ೬.೧೭.೬೪

One’s innermost thoughts and emotions reflect on one’s physical appearance which it is difficult to cover up however one may try to do it.   Such changes in one’s physical appearance forcefully expose such innermost emotions and thoughts.

[Context:  These are words of Hanuman to Rama who consults the vanara leaders about accepting Vibheeshana who has come to join their side after parting company with Ravana.  Many of the vanara leaders do not want to accept him and some even suggest that he may be a spy of Ravana.  Hanuman, however, cogently argues the case for Vibhashana’s acceptance. He says that Vibheeshana’s body language clearly indicates that he is earnest and does not have evil intentions.]

ಗರ್ಜನ್ತಿ ನ ವೃಥಾ ಶೂರಾಃ ನಿರ್ಜಲಾ ಇವ ತೋಯದಾ:|   ೬.೬೫.೩

The thundering of clouds which have spent all their water does not produce any rain.  But the really valiant do not roar in vain;  they show their valor in action also.

[Context:  These are the words of Kumbhakarna addressed to Ravana.   He sets out to  face  Rama, Lakshmana  and the entire army of vanaras. and vows to kill Rama and  thus once for all put an end to  the troubles of Ravana]

ಯಃ ಸ್ವಪಕ್ಷಂ  ಪರಿತ್ಯಜ್ಯ ಪರಪಕ್ಷಂ ನಿಷೇವತೇ|
ಸ್ವಪಕ್ಷೇ ಚ ಕ್ಷಯಂ ಯಾತೇ ಪಶ್ಚಾತ್ತೈರೇಯ ಹನ್ಯತೇ||   ೬.೮೭.೧೬

The one who abandons one’s own camp and joins the enemy’s camp will be killed by the very  men of his former camp after the latter camp is completely destroyed by the former.
[Context: These are the words of Indrajit to Vibhishana when he encounters the latter in the battle field. He implies that Rama and his army will be wiped out and he (Vibheeshana) will be put to death by the rakshasas.]

ಪರಸ್ವಾನಾಂ ಚ ಹರಣಂ ಪರದಾರಾಭಿಮರ್ಶನಂ|
ಸುಹೃದಾಮತಿಶಂಕಾ ಚ ತ್ರಯೋ ದೋಷಾಃ ಕ್ಷಯಾವಹಾಃ|| ೬.೮೫.೨೩

Stealing the wealth of others, coveting another man’s wife and doubting the integrity and character of friends - these three lead to one’s destruction.

[Context: This is Vibheeshana’s reply to the taunts of Indrajit who encounters the former in the battle field and  rebukes  Vibhishana for ditching Ravana.]

ದೇಶೇ ದೇಶೇ ಕಲತ್ರಾಣಿ ದೇಶೇ ದೇಶೇ ಚ ಬಾಂಧವಾಃ |
ತಂ ತು ದೇಶಂ ನ ಪಶ್ಯಾಮಿ ಯತ್ರ ಭ್ರಾತಾ ಸಹೋದರಃ||  ೬.೧೦೧.೧೪

One may have wives and relatives in every country but one cannot have a brother like Lakshmana in every place.

[Context: Rama’s words of sorrow when Lakshmana becomes unconscious in the battle field struck by the spear of Indrajit.]

ನ ಹಿ ಪ್ರತಿಜ್ಞಾಂ ಕುರ್ವನ್ತಿ ವಿತಥಾಂ ಸತ್ಯವಾದಿನಃ|
ಲಕ್ಷಣಂ ಹಿ ಮಹತ್ತ್ವಸ್ಯ ಪ್ರತಿಜ್ಞಾ ಪರಿಪಾಲನಮ್||  ೬.೧೦೧.೫೨

Those who always adhere to truth do not make false promises.  Keeping one’s promises is, surely,  the mark of one’s  greatness.

[Context: Rama was plunged into deep sorrow and loses heart  when Lakshamana was struck unconscious by a spear thrown at him by Ravana.  Lakshmana was revived by the sanjeevani  brought by Hanuman.  Seeing Rama’s condition Lakshmana reminds him of Rama’s vow to kill Ravana who had abducted Sita.  Lakshmana  says that the vow made by Rama should never become false. ]

ಪತಿವ್ರತಾನಾಂ ನಾಕಸ್ಮಾತ್ ಪತನ್ತ್ಯಶ್ರೂಣಿ ಭೂತಲೇ  |   ೬.೧೧೧.೬೭

The tears of virtuous women (pativratas) do not fall on the ground in vain, meaning it will destroy those who caused them such anguish of heart causing tears to be shed.

[Context: These are the words of Mandodari who mourns the death of Ravana. She says Ravana met this fate because of the tears shed by Sita who was a pativrata and whom Ravana anguished by his improper advances]

ಧಾರಣಾದ್ಧರ್ಮಮಿತ್ಯಾಹುಃ ಧರ್ಮೇಣ ವಿಧೃತಾಃ ಪ್ರಜಾಃ  (೭.೫೯  Prakshipta: ೨/೭)
Dharma is so called because it sustains or supports society (from the root dhri meaning to support). The people of a country are held 
together and sustained by Dharma.

ಕ್ರೋಧಃ ಪ್ರಾಣಹರೋ ಶತ್ರುಃ ಕ್ರೋಧೋ ಮಿತ್ರಮುಖೋ ರಿಪುಃ|
ಕ್ರೋಧೋಹ್ಯಸಿರ್ಮಹಾತೀಕ್ಷ್ಣಃ ಸರ್ವಮ್ ಕ್ರೋಧೋಽಪಕರ್ಷತಿ||     (೭.೫೯ prakshipta ೨/೨೧)

Anger is the enemy which takes one’s life. Anger is enemy with the face of a friend. Anger is like a very sharp sword.  Anger destroys everything.

ನ ಸಾ ಸಭಾ ಯತ್ರ ನ ಸನ್ತಿ ವೃದ್ಧಾಃ
ವೃದ್ಧಾ ನ ತೇ ಯೇ ನ ವದನ್ತಿ ಧರ್ಮಂ |
ನಾಸೌ ಧರ್ಮೋ ಯತ್ರ ನ ಸತ್ಯಮಸ್ತಿ
ನ ತತ್ಸತ್ಯಂ ಯಚ್ಛಲೇನಾನುವಿದ್ಧಮ್ ||

That is not an assembly where wise old men are not there.  They are not wise old men who do not preach dharma.  That is not dharmawhere there is no Truth.  That is not Truth which is covered over with deceit.

ತಪೋ ಹಿ ಪರಮಂ ಶ್ರೇಯಃ ಸಮ್ಮೋಹಮಿತರತ್ಸುಖಮ್|    ೭.೮೪.೩

Tapas is the highest good.  All other pleasures or joys are only  delusions.        

[Context: These are the words of Vrutrasura who wants to do severe tapas]

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