Monday, March 4, 2013

ಗೀತಗೋವಿನ್ದಮ್ ಪಂಚಮಃ ಸರ್ಗಃ


GITA GOVINDAM (ಗೀತಗೋವಿನ್ದಮ್)
Gita Govindam, lyrical poetry in Sanskrit celebrating the love between Krishna and the gopis,  specifically Radha, is authored by Jayadeva, the ೧೨th century devotee-poet from Orissa.  The basis for this work is the ೫ chapters ೨೯ to ೩೩ of Srimadbhagavatam  (known as Rasapanchadhyaayi) which describe the events  leading to the  rasaleela, the great dance on the banks of the Yamuna where each gopi thinks that Krishna is with her.  Srimadbhagavatam, however, does not specifically talk about a gopi named Radha though Radha is described as the very heart of Krishna in some of the other Puranas.   

The  above theme has been developed in Gita Govindam to such an extent that it  is known as ‘Sringara Mahakavya’ wherein  the predominant sentiment is sringara (erotic sentiment) in all its various moods in relation to the divine love between Radha and Krishna. The ecstasy of union,  the agony of separation, the anxious moments of wait for the loved one are all treated with sensitiviy and poetic excellence.  The whole work is divided into twelve chapters ( sargas), each chapter containing one or more prabandhas. There are ೨೪ prabandhas each containing couplets grouped into eights called  Ashtapadis, songs with a refrain specific to that  Ashatapadi.  There are in all ೨೪ Ashtapadis in Gita Govindam. Each Chapter may have one or more slokas in  different metres of Sanskrit poetry interspersed with the Ashtapadis.  It is said that the Poet-devotee Jayadeva would sing the Ashtapadis and his wife Padmavati would dance to the music.  There have been many choreographic works  to enact and present the Ashtapadis  as  a dance drama. 
Given below is the text of   the Fifth Chapter (ಪಂಚಮಃ ಸರ್ಗಃ) with a prosaic translation in English for those who cannot follow the Sanskrit of the original. The translation in no way can do justice to the poetic excellence or the beauty of expression of the original.

ಅಹಮಿಹ ನಿವಸಾಮಿ ಯಾಹಿ ರಾಧಾ-
ಮನುನಯ ಮದ್ವಚನೇನ ಚಾನಯೇಥಾಃ| 
ಇತಿ ಮಧುರಿಪುಣಾ ಸಖೀ ನಿಯುಕ್ತಾ
ಸ್ವಯಮಿದಮೇತ್ಯ ಪುನರ್ಜಗಾದ ರಾಧಾಮ್ ||  ೧|| 

Krishna says to Radha’s friend: “ I am staying here.  Go and, on my behalf, pacify her and bring her here”.  Thus instructed by Kirshna she goes back to Radha and tells her:

ವಹತಿ ಮಲಯಸಮೀರೇ ಮದನಮುಪನಿಧಾಯ| 
ಸ್ಫುಟತಿ ಕುಸುಮನಿಕರೇ ವಿರಹಿಹೃದಯದಲನಾಯ
ತವ ವಿರಹೇ ವನಮಾಲೀ ಸಖಿ ಸೀದತಿ ರಾಧೇ || ೧|| 
When the cool malaya breeze blows, helping Cupid in his mission and  flowers bloom tearing the hearts of  virahis ( those separated from their lovers), Vanamali, Krishna,  suffers the misery of separation from you, O friend Radha!
ದಹತಿ ಶಿಶಿರಮಯೂಖೇ ಮರಣಂ ಅನುಕರೋತಿ| 
ಪತತಿ ಮದನವಿಶಿಖೇ ವಿಲಪತಿ ವಿಕಲತರೋಽತಿ|| ೨||  (ತವ ವಿರಹೇ ....)
The cools rays of the moon burn him and give him a near-death experience and when Cupid’s arrows pierce him he bewails deeply hurt.  Vanamali etc. ...

ಧ್ವನತಿ ಮಧುಪಸಮೂಹೇ ಶ್ರವಣಮಪಿದಧಾತಿ| 
ಮನಸಿ ಕಲಿತವಿರಹೇ ನಿಶಿ ನಿಶಿ ರುಜಮುಪಯಾತಿ|| ೩||  (ತವ ವಿರಹೇ ....)
When honey bees buzz, he plugs his ears.  Thinking of  separation, he agonizes every night. Vanamali etc. ...

ವಸತಿ ವಿಪಿನವಿತಾನೇ ತ್ಯಜತಿ ಲಲಿತಧಾಮ| 
ಲುಠತಿ ಧರಣಿಶಯನೇ ಬಹು ವಿಲಪತಿ ತವ ನಾಮ || ೪||  (ತವ ವಿರಹೇ ....)

Leaving his pretty house he lives in a forest bower;  sleeps on the bare floor on the ground and calls your name several times. Vanamali etc. ...

ರಣತಿ ಪಿಕಸಮುದಾಯೇ ಪ್ರತಿದಿಶಮನುಯಾತಿ| 
ಹಸತಿ ಮನುಜನಿಚಯೇ ವಿರಹಮಪಲಪತಿ ನೇತಿ || ೫||  (ತವ ವಿರಹೇ ....)

Hearing the cooing of cuckoos he runs here and there as if mad and when people laugh at him he denies viraha, separation. Vanamali etc. ...

ಸ್ಫುರತಿ ಕಲರವರಾವೇ ಸ್ಮರತಿ ಭಣಿತಮೇವ| 
ತವ ರತಿಸುಖವಿಭವೇ ಬಹುಗಣಯತಿ ಗುಣಮತೀವ || ೬||  (ತವ ವಿರಹೇ ....)

When he hears the sweet sounds of birds he is reminded of  your sweet words and he holds high in his mind the pleasures of union with you. 

ತ್ವದಭಿಧಶುಭಮಾಸಂ ವದತಿ ನರಿ ಶೃಣೋತಿ| 
ತಮಪಿ ಜಪತಿ ಸರಸಂ ಪರಯುವತಿಷು ನ ರತಿಮುಪೈತಿ|| ೭||  (ತವ ವಿರಹೇ ....)

If someone takes the name of the auspicious month bearing your name he hears it and chants it repeatedly.  He does not find pleasure in other women. Vanamali etc. ...

ಭಣತಿ ಕವಿಜಯದೇವಿ ವಿರಹಿವಿಲಸಿತೇನ| 
ಮನಸಿ ರಭಸವಿಭವೇ ಹರಿರುದಯತು ಸುಕೃತೇನ || ೮||  (ತವ ವಿರಹೇ ....)
May Hari reveal Himself  in the heart of poet Jayadeva who has described the agony of Krishna on account of his separtion from Radha and who has earned enough punya.  Vanamali etc. ...
                 [End of prabandha ೧೦]


ಪೂರ್ವಂ ಯತ್ರ ಸಮಂ ತ್ವಯಾ ರತಿಪತೇರಾಸಾದಿತಾಃ ಸಿದ್ಧಯ-
ಸ್ತಸ್ಮಿನ್ನೇವ ನಿಕುಞ್ಜಮನ್ಮಥಮಹಾತೀರ್ಥೇ ಪುನರ್ಮಾಧವಃ| 
ಧ್ಯಾಯಂಸ್ತ್ವಾಮನಿಶಂ ಜಪನ್ನಪಿ ತವೈವಾಲಾಪಮನ್ತ್ರಾವಲಿಂ
ಭೂಯಸ್ತ್ವತ್ಕುಚಕುಮ್ಭನಿರ್ಭರಪರೀರಮ್ಭಾಮೃತಂ ವಾಂಛತಿ || 

Radha’s friend continues her dialogue:
“In the same bower on the banks of Yamuna where you had union with Krishna earlier, Madhava is waiting for you continually chanting the mantra of your name. Again he wants the sweet experience of embracing your pot-shaped breasts” 

ರತಿಸುಖಸಾರೇ ಗತಮಭಿಸಾರೇ ಮದನಮನೋಹರವೇಷಮ್| 
ನ ಕುರು ನಿತಂಬಿನಿ ಗಮನವಿಲಮ್ಬನಮನುಸರ ತಂ ಹೃದಯೇಶಮ್ || ೧|| 
ಧೀರಸಮೀರೇ ಯಮುನಾತೀರೇ ವಸತಿ ವನೇ ವನಮಾಲೀ| 
ಗೋಪೀಪೀನಪಯೋಧರಮರ್ದನಚಂಚಲಕರಯುಗಶಾಲೀ || ೧|| 

O broad-hipped Radha! Krishna is at the rendezvous in his captivating best, more handsome than Cupid himself.  Do not tarry any more. Follow him, the lord of your heart. He, Vanamali,   who wears a garland of wild flowers and whose hands itch for squeezing the breasts of gopis,  is there in the bower on the banks of Yamuna, where the cool breeze blows steadily. 

ನಾಮಸಮೇತಂ ಕೃತಸಙ್ಕೇತಂ ವಾದಯತೇ ಮೃದುವೇಣುಮ್| 
ಬಹು ಮನುತೇ ತನುತೇ ತನುಸಙ್ಗತಪವನಚಲಿತಮಪಿ ರೇಣುಮ್ || ೨||  (ಧೀರಸಮೀರೇ ....)

He plays his flute taking your name and giving you a signal.  He considers lucky even a particle of dust which has touched your body and is carried in the breeze. He, Vanamali etc.....

ಪತತಿ ಪತತ್ರೇ ವಿಚಲಿತಪತ್ರೇ ಶಂಕಿತಭವದುಪಯಾನಮ್| 
ರಚಯತಿ ಶಯನಂ ಸಚಕಿತನಯನಂ ಪಶ್ಯತಿ ತವ ಪನ್ಥಾನಮ್ || ೩|| (ಧೀರಸಮೀರೇ ....)

The sound of falling feathers of birds or the rustling of leaves make him think that you have arrived.  He makes the bed and with apprehensive eyes looks towards the path by which you will approach.  He, Vanamali etc..... 

ಮುಖರಮಧೀರಂ ತ್ಯಜ ಮಞ್ಜೀರಂ ರಿಪುಮಿವ ಕೇಲಿಸುಲೋಲಮ್| 
ಚಲ ಸಖಿ ಕುಞ್ಜಂ ಸತಿಮಿರಪುಞ್ಜಂ ಶೀಲಯ ನೀಲನಿಚೋಲಮ್ | ೪||  (ಧೀರಸಮೀರೇ ....)

Abandon these anklets as you would an enemy. They would betray by their tinkling sound and spoil the sport. Walk towards the bower in the darkness with dark blue clothes on. He, Vanamali etc....  .

ಉರಸಿ ಮುರಾರೇರುಪಹಿತಹಾರೇ ಘನ ಇವ ತರಲಬಲಾಕೇ| 
ತಡಿದಿವ ಪೀತೇ ರತಿವಿಪರೀತೇ ರಾಜಸಿ ಸುಕೃತವಿಪಾಕೇ || ೫||  (ಧೀರಸಮೀರೇ ....)

On Krishna’s breast adorned with garlands, like a flock of balaka birds among dark clouds, you will shine like lightning,  in a reversal of roles,  O Radha! as a result of your meritorious deeds (punya) which are ripe for bearing fruit.

ವಿಗಲಿತವಸನಂ ಪರಿಹೃತರಶನಂ ಘಟಯ ಜಘನಮಪಿಧಾನಮ್| 
ಕಿಸಲಯಶಯನೇ ಪಂಕಜನಯನೇ ನಿಧಿಮಿವ ಹರ್ಷನಿಧಾನಮ್

Letting your clothes slip off and discarding your girdle, join your hip,  treasure house of pleasure, with that of lotus-eyed Krishna lying on the bed of tender leaves. He, Vanamali etc....

ಹರಿರಭಿಮಾನೀ ರಜನಿರಿದಾನೀಮಿಯಮಪಿ ಯಾತಿ ವಿರಾಮಮ್| 
ಕುರು ಮಮ ವಚನಂ ಸತ್ವರರಚನಂ ಪೂರಯ ಮಧುರಿಪುಕಾಮಮ್ || ೭|| (ಧೀರಸಮೀರೇ ....)
Hari has self-respect, the night will come to an end, hear my words and act accordingly very quickly.  Fulfil the desire of the enemy of Madhu.  He, Vanamali etc....

ಶ್ರೀ ಜಯದೇವೇ ಕೃತಹರಿಸೇವೇ ಭಣತಿ ಪರಮರಮಣೀಯಮ್| 
ಪ್ರಮುದಿತಹೃದಯಂ ಹರಿಮತಿಸದಯಂ ನಮತ ಸುಕೃತಕಮನೀಯಮ್|| ೮||  (ಧೀರಸಮೀರೇ ....)

Prostrate before Hari who is very kind and whose heart is gladdened by this beautiful song by poet Jayadeva, servant of Hari.  He, Vanamali etc....

ವಿಕಿರತಿ ಮುಹುಃ ಶ್ವಾಸಾನಾಶಾಃ ಪುರೋ ಮುಹುರೀಕ್ಷತೇ
ಪ್ರವಿಶತಿ ಮುಹುಃ ಕುಞ್ಜಂ ಗುಞ್ಜನ್ ಮುಹುರ್ಬಹು ತಾಮ್ಯತಿ | 
ರಚಯತಿ ಮುಹುಃ ಶಯ್ಯಾಂ ಪರ್ಯಾಕುಲಂ ಮುಹುರೀಕ್ಷತೇ
ಮದನಕದನಕ್ಲಾನ್ತಃ ಕಾನ್ತೇ ಪ್ರಿಯಸ್ತವ ವರ್ತತೇ || ೧|| 

Exhausted by the agony of separation, Krishna sighs frequently, repeatedly looks in all directions, enters the bower often muttering something, bewails every now and then, makes the bed several times and  anxiously looks around always.  O Radha! this is the condition of your darling Krishna.

ತ್ವದ್ವಾಕ್ಯೇನ ಸಮಂ ಸಮಗ್ರಮಧುನಾ ತಿಗ್ಮಾಂಶುರಸ್ತಂಗತೋ
ಗೋವಿನ್ದಸ್ಯ ಮನೋರಥೇನ ಚ ಸಮಂ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ತಂ ತಮಃ ಸಾನ್ದ್ರತಾಮ್| 
ಕೋಕಾನಾಂ ಕರುಣಸ್ವನೇನ ಸದೃಶೀ ದೀರ್ಘಾ ಮದಭ್ಯರ್ಥನಾ
ತನ್ಮುಗ್ಧೇ ವಿಫಲಂ ವಿಲಂಬನಮಸೌ ರಮ್ಯೋಽಭಿಸಾರಕ್ಷಣಃ || ೨|| 

O Radha! by the time of your reply the sun has set and with the desire of Govinda, the darkness has become dense.  Like the pitiful sounds of the koka  birds, my request is long. O Beautiful one! this dealy will not yield any result. Invitation to the rendezvous by Krishna is heartening.

ಆಶ್ಲೇಷಾದನು ಚುಮ್ಬನಾದನು ನಖೋಲ್ಲೇಖಾದನು ಸ್ವಾನ್ತಜಾ-
ತ್ಪ್ರೋದ್ಬೋಧಾದನು ಸಮ್ಭ್ರಮಾದನು ರತಾರಂಭಾದನು ಪ್ರೀತಯೋಃ| 
ಅನ್ಯಾರ್ಥಂ ಗತಯೋರ್ಭ್ರಮಾನ್ಮಿಲಿತಯೋಃ ಸಮ್ಭಾಷಣೈರ್ಜಾನತೋಃ
ದಮ್ಪತ್ಯೋರ್ನಿಶಿ ಕಾ ನ ಕೋ ನ ತಮಸಿ ವ್ರೀಡಾವಿಮಿಶ್ರೋರಸಃ || ೩|| 

O Friend! When the lovers meet at their rendezvous in the darkness of the night they understand each other by their intimate conversation. They embrace, plant kisses, leave nail marks and are aroused and excited. Then there is the ecstatic union of their bodies and fulfilment.  What erotic sentiments ( shringara rasa), mixed with shyness, do the lovers not experience?  

ಸಭಯಚಕಿತಂ ವಿನ್ಯಸ್ಯನ್ತೀಂ ದೃಶೌ ತಿಮಿರೇ ಪಥಿ
ಪ್ರತಿತರು ಮುಹುಃ ಸ್ಥಿತ್ವಾ ಮನ್ದಂ ಪದಾನಿ ವಿತನ್ವತೀಮ್| 
ಕಥಮಪಿ ರಹಃ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ತಾಮಙ್ಗೈರನಙ್ಗತರಙ್ಗಿಭಿಃ
ಸುಮುಖಿ ಸುಮುಖಃ ಪಶ್ಯಂಸ್ತ್ವಾಮುಪೈತು ಕೃತಾರ್ಥತಾಮ್ || ೪|| 

In the darkness you look at the path with apprehension. You stop at every tree and step slowly. You somehow reach the rendezvous with passionate love in your heart. O good looking one! may the handsome one, Krishna, seeing you, be fulfilled. 

ಸ್ವಚ್ಛನ್ದಂ ವ್ರಜಸುನ್ದರೀಜನಮನಸ್ತೋಷಪ್ರದೋಷಶ್ಚಿರಂ
ಕಂಸಧ್ವ್ಸನಧೂಮಕೇತುರವತು ತ್ವಾಂ ದೇವಕೀನನ್ದನಃ|| ೫|| 
Krishna, son of Devaki is like the honey bee for the beautiful lotus-face of Radha.  He is like the crown of the three worlds and like the blue gem stone for adornment. He is competent to relieve the Earth of her load. He gladdens the hearts of the beuties of vraja and is like the dhumaketu (comet) for the death of Kamsa. May that Krishna protect you.  

                 [End of prabandha - ೧೧]
ಇತಿ ಶ್ರೀಗೀತಗೋವಿನ್ದೇ ಶೃಙ್ಗಾರಮಹಾಕಾವ್ಯೇ ಅಭಿಸಾರಿಕಾವರ್ಣನೇ
ಸಾಕಾಂಕ್ಷಪುಣ್ಡರೀಕಾಕ್ಷೋ ನಾಮ ಪಞ್ಚಮಃ ಸರ್ಗಃ

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