Monday, March 4, 2013

ಗೀತಗೋವಿನ್ದಮ್,ತ್ರಿತೀಯಃ ಸರ್ಗಃ


GITA GOVINDAM (ಗೀತಗೋವಿನ್ದಮ್)
Gita Govindam, lyrical poetry in Sanskrit celebrating the love between Krishna and the gopis,  specifically Radha, is authored by Jayadeva, the ೧೨th century devotee-poet from Orissa.  The basis for this work is the ೫ chapters ೨೯ to ೩೩ of Srimadbhagavatam  (known as Rasapanchadhyaayi) which describe the events  leading to the  rasaleela, the great dance on the banks of the Yamuna where each gopi thinks that Krishna is with her.  Srimadbhagavatam, however, does not specifically talk about a gopi named Radha though Radha is described as the very heart of Krishna in some of the other Puranas.   

The  above theme has been developed in Gita Govindam to such an extent that it  is known as ‘Sringara Mahakavya’ wherein  the predominant sentiment is sringara (erotic sentiment) in all its various moods in relation to the divine love between Radha and Krishna. The ecstasy of union,  the agony of separation, the anxious moments of wait for the loved one are all treated with sensitiviy and poetic excellence.  The whole work is divided into twelve chapters ( sargas), each chapter containing one or more prabandhas. There are ೨೪ prabandhas each containing couplets grouped into eights called  Ashtapadis, songs with a refrain specific to that  Ashatapadi.  There are in all ೨೪ Ashtapadis in Gita Govindam. Each Chapter may have one or more slokas in  different metres of Sanskrit poetry interspersed with the Ashtapadis.  It is said that the Poet-devotee Jayadeva would sing the Ashtapadis and his wife Padmavati would dance to the music.  There have been many choreographic works  to enact and present the Ashtapadis  as  a dance drama. 
Given below is the text of   the Third Chapter (ತ್ರಿತೀಯಃ ಸರ್ಗಃ) with a prosaic translation in English for those who cannot follow the Sanskrit of the original. The translation in no way can do justice to the poetic excellence or the beauty of expression of the original.

ಕಂಸಾರಿರಪಿ ಸಂಸಾರ ವಾಸನಾಬನ್ಧಶೃಂಖಲಾಂ
ರಾಧಾಮಾಧಾಯ ಹೃದಯೇ ತತ್ಯಾಜ ವ್ರಜಸುನ್ದರೀಃ || ೧|| 
Krishna, the enemy of Kamsa, installed in his heart Radha who was the chain binding to the yearnings of this mundane world and left the other gopis

ಇತಸ್ತತಸ್ತಾಮನುಸೃತ್ಯ ರಾಧಿಕಾ-
ಕೃತಾನುತಾಪಃ ಸ ಕಲಿನ್ದನನ್ದಿನೀ-
ತಟಾನ್ತಕುಞ್ಜೇ ನೀಷಸಾದ ಮಾಧವಃ || ೨|| 

With a heart pierced by the arrows of Cupid,  Krishna, regretting his earlier neglect of Radha,  followed her here and there and finally settled himself in a bower on the banks of the Yamuna.


ಮಾಮಿಯಂ ಚಲಿತಾ ವಿಲೋಕ್ಯ ವೃತಂ ವಧೂನಿಚಯೇನ| 
ಸಾಪರಾಧತಯಾ ಮಯಾಪಿ ನ ವಾರಿತಾತಿಭಯೇನ || 
ಹರಿಹರಿ ಹತಾದರತಯಾ ಗತಾ ಸಾ ಕುಪಿತೇವ||  ೧|| 

Krishan thinks thus: “Radha walked away seeing me surrounded by so many gopis.  Because it was my mistake I did not prevent her  fearing (her reaction).  Alas! since she was spurned she went away, may be with anger in her heart.”

ಕಿಂ ಕರಿಷ್ಯತಿ ಕಿಂ ವದಿಷ್ಯತಿ ಸಾ ಚಿರಂ ವಿರಹೇಣ| 
ಕಿಂ ಧನೇನ ಜನೇನ ಕಿಂ ಮಮ ಜೀವಿತೇನ ಗೃಹೇಣ || ೨||  (ಹರಿಹರಿ…..)

What will she do and what will she say?  Of what use are wealth, relatives, house or even life in the agony of a long separation?  Alas! ……  

ಚಿನ್ತಯಾಮಿ ತದಾನನಂ ಕುಟಿಲಭ್ರೂರೋಷಭರೇಣ| 
ಶೋಣಪದ್ಮಮಿವೋಪರಿ ಭ್ರಮತಾಕುಲಂ ಭ್ರಮರೇಣ || ೩||  (ಹರಿಹರಿ…..)

I contemplate her face with arched brows in anger as if honey-bees circling over a red lotus flower.  Alas! ….

ತಾಮಹಂ ಹೃದಿ ಸಂಗತಾಮನಿಶಂ ಭೃಶಂ ರಮಯಾಮಿ| 
ಕಿಂ ವನೇಽನುಸರಾಮಿ ಕಿಂ ವೃಥಾ ವಿಲಪಾಮಿ || ೪||  (ಹರಿಹರಿ…..)

I will always carry her in my heart; I will surely make her delighted.  Shall I follow her in the forest or simply bewail my fate? Alas! ….

ತನ್ವಿ ಖಿನ್ನಮಸೂಯಯಾ ಹೃದಯಂ ತವಾಕಲಯಾಮಿ| 
ತನ್ನ ವೇದ್ಮಿ ಕುತೋ ಗತಾಸಿ ನ ತೇನ ತೇಽನುನಯಾಮಿ || ೫||  (ಹರಿಹರಿ…..)
O slender one! I will soothe your heart which is weighed down by jealousy.  I do not know where you have gone; that is the reason why I m not there to assuage your feelings. Alas!  …..

ದೃಶ್ಯಸೇ ಪುರತೋ ಗತಾಗತಮೇವ ಮೇ ವಿದಧಾಸಿ
ಕಿಂ ಪುರೇವ ಸಸಂಭ್ರಮಂ ಪರಿರಂಭಣಂ ನ ದದಾಸಿ || ೬||  (ಹರಿಹರಿ…..)
When you are seen by me you just keep moving but you do not come and embrace me excitedly as before (Because of the agony of separation Krishna sees Radha in every gopi he sees) Alas!

ಕ್ಷಮ್ಯತಾಮಪರಂ ಕದಾಪಿ ತವೇದೃಶಂ ನ ಕರೋಮಿ| 
ದೇಹಿ ಸುನ್ದರಿ ದರ್ಶನಂ ಮಮ ಮನ್ಮಥೇನ ದುನೋಮಿ|| ೭|| (ಹರಿಹರಿ…..)

O Beautiful one ! forgive me, I will not ever behave like this.  I am tormented by Cupid; please let me see you.  Alas…

ವರ್ಣಿತಂ ಜಯದೇವಕೇನ ಹರೇರಿದಂ ಪ್ರಣತೇನ| 
ಕಿನ್ದುಬಿಲ್ವಸಮುದ್ರಸಂಭವರೋಹಿಣೀರಮಣೇನ || ೮||  (ಹರಿಹರಿ…..)

ಭ್ರೂಪಲ್ಲವಂ ಧನುರಪಾಂಗತರಂಗಿತಾನಿ
ಬಾಣಾ ಗುಣಾಃ ಶ್ರವಣಪಾಲಿರಿತಿ ಸ್ಮರೇಣ| 
ಮಸ್ತ್ರಾಣೀ ನಿರ್ಜಿತಜಗನ್ತಿ ಕಿಮರ್ಪಿತಾನಿ || ೧|| 

Radha’s eye-brows are the bow of Cupid, her sidelong glances are arrows, bow string is the sides of her ears. It seems as if Cupid has deposited all his weapons by which he has conquered all the worlds in the person of Radha who is the walking goddess of his victory.    

ಹೃದಿ ಬಿಸಲತಾಹಾರೋ ನಾಯಂ ಭುಜಙ್ಗಮನಾಯಕಃ
ಕುವಲಯದಲಶ್ರೇಣೀ ಕಣ್ಠೇ ನ ಸಾ ಗರಲದ್ಯುತಿಃ
ಮಲಯಜರಜೋ ನೇದಂ ಭಸ್ಮ ಪ್ರಿಯಾರಹಿತೇ ಮಯಿ
ಪ್ರಹರ ನ ಹರಭ್ರಾನ್ತ್ಯಾಽನಙ್ಗ ಕ್ರುಧಾ ಕಿಮು ಧಾವಸಿ || ೨|| 

Krishna says:  “What I wear on my breast is a garland of lotus stalk,  not the chief of serpents. What is around the neck is a bouquet of blue lotus flowers, not poison.  It is sandal paste on my body, not ashes.  O Cupid! do not aim you arrows in anger at me, suffering the agony of separation from my loved one,  mistaking me for Lord Shiva who is your enemy.” 

ಪಾಣೌ ಮಾ ಕುರು ಚೂತಸಾಯಕಮಮುಂ ಮಾ ಚಾಪಮಾರೋಪಯ
ಕ್ರೀಡಾನಿರ್ಜಿತವಿಶ್ವಮೂರ್ಛಿತಜನಾಘಾತೇನ ಕಿಂ ಪೌರುಷಮ್| 
ತಸ್ಯಾ ಏವ ಮೃಗೀದೃಶೋ ಮನಸಿಜ ಪ್ರೇಕ್ಷತ್ಕಟಾಕ್ಷಾನಲ-
ಜ್ವಾಲಾಜರ್ಜರಿತಂ ಮನಾಗಪಿ ಮನೋ ನಾದ್ಯಾಪಿ ಸಂಧುಕ್ಷತೇ || ೩|| 

Krishna says: “O Cupid, do not take the arrow of mango flower; do not shoot the arrow from the bow.  You have playfully conquered the world. What manliness is there in striking at people who have fainted. O Cupid! My heart which has been burnt by the flame of sidelong glances of the doe-eyed Radha has not yet regained its life.”

ಭ್ರೂಚಾಪೇ ನಿಹಿತಃ ಕಟಾಕ್ಷವಿಶಿಖೋ ನಿರ್ಮಾತು ಮರ್ಮವ್ಯಥಾಂ
ಶ್ಯಾಮಾತ್ಮಾ ಕುಟಿಲಃ ಕರೋತು ಕಬರೀಭಾರೋಽಪಿ ಮಾರೋದ್ಯಮಮ್| 
ಮೋಹಂ ತಾವದಯಂ ಚ ತನ್ವಿ! ತನುತಾಂ ಬಿಮ್ಬಾಧರೋ ರಾಗವಾನ್
ಸದ್ವೃತ್ತಸ್ತನಮಣ್ಡಲಂ ತವ ಕಥಂ ಪ್ರಾಣೈರ್ಮಮ ಕ್ರೀಡತಿ || ೪|| 

Krishna says with Radha in his mind: “Let the arrows of your sidelong glances shot from the bow of your brows hurt my inside. Let the dark curled  (crooked) tresses do the work of Cupid.  Let your red lips O slender one! seduce me.  But how can your rounded breasts play with my life? “
[sadvrutta  means  (೧) rounded  and (೨) of good conduct and character]

ತಾನಿ ಸ್ಪರ್ಶಸುಖಾನಿ ತೇ ಚ ತರಲಾಃ ಸ್ನಿಗ್ಧಾ ದೃಶೋ ವಿಭ್ರಮಾ-
ಸ್ತದ್ವಕ್ತ್ರಾಮ್ಬುಜಸೌರಭಂ ಸ ಚ ಸುಧಾಸ್ಯನ್ದಿ ಗಿರಾಂ ವಕ್ರಿಮಾ| 
ಸಾ ಬಿಮ್ಬಾಧರಮಾಧುರೀತಿ ವಿಷಯಾಸಂಗೇಽಪಿ ಮನ್ಮಾನಸಂ
ತಸ್ಯಾಂ ಲಗ್ನಸಮಾಧಿ ಹಂತ ವಿರಹವ್ಯಾಧಿಃ ಕಥಂ ವರ್ತತೇ || ೫|| 

Those pleasures of touch, those liquid and smooth looks, that sweet smell of the lotus-face, those nectar-dripping crookedness of words, that sweetness of your red lips  - my mind always dwells on these things.  In spite of this how is it that this disease of viraha (separation) still persists

ತಿರ್ಯಕ್ಕಂಠವಿಲೋಲಮೌಲಿತರಲೋತ್ತಂಸಸ್ಯ ವಂಶೋಚ್ಚರದ್
ಗೀತಸ್ಥಾನಕೃತಾವಧಾನಲಲನಾಲಕ್ಷೈರ್ನ ಸಂಲಕ್ಷಿತಾಃ | 
ಸಂಮುಗ್ಧಂ ಮಧುಸೂದನಸ್ಯ ಮಧುರೇ ರಾಧಾಮುಖೇನ್ದೌ ಮೃದು-
ಸ್ಪನ್ದಂ ಕಂದಲಿತಾಶ್ಚಿರಂ ದಧತು ವಃ ಕ್ಷೇಮಂ ಕಟಾಕ್ಷೋರ್ಮಯಃ|| ೬|| 

Krishna’s neck had turned slightly and his head ornaments had also been displaced a little because of the wave of sidelong glances he was casting on the sweet moon-like face of Radha.  But the other gopis who were immersed in the melodious music from the flute of Krishna did not notice those glances.  May those glances of Krishna protect you.

                [ End of prabandha ೭]

ಇತಿ ಶ್ರೀಗೀತಗೋವಿನ್ದೇ  ಶೃಙ್ಗಾರಮಹಾಕಾವ್ಯೇ ಶ್ರೀಕೃಷ್ಣದಾಸಜಯದೇವಕೃತೌ
ಮುಗ್ಧಮಧುಸೂದನೋನಾಮ ತೃತೀಯಃ ಸರ್ಗಃ

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